American Patents LLC v. Mediatek, Inc. et al

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2018-cv-00339

Ex. 8 [Microsoft Comp. Dict.]

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EXHIBIT 8. 2 Ghicrosoft OVER 10,000 ENTRIES BESTIA Microsoft Computer Dictionary Fifth Edition • Fully updated with the latest technologies, terms, and acronyms • Easy to read, expertly illustrated Definitive coverage of hardware, software, the Internet, and more! PUBLISHED BY Microsoft Press A Division of Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way::. Redmond, Washington 98052-6399 Copyright © 2002 by Microsoft Corporation All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Catáloging-in-Publication Data Microsoft Computer Dictionary.--5th ed. . p. cm. ISBN 0-7356-1495-4 1. Computers--Dictionaries. 2. Microcomputers--Dictionaries. . . AQ76,5. M52267 2002 004:03-dc21 200219714 Printed and bound in the United States of America. 2 3 4 5.6 7 8 9 QWT 7 6 5 4 3 2 Distributed in Canada by H.B. Fenn and Company Ltd. ACIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Microsoft Press books are available through booksellers and distributors worldwide. For further informa- tion about international editions, contact your local Microsoft Corporation office or contact Microsoft Press International directly at fax (425) 936-7329. Visit our Web site at Send comments to Active Desktop, Active Directory, ActiveMovie, Active Store, ActiveSync, ActiveX, Authenticode, BackOffice, BizTalk, ClearType, Direct3D, DirectAnimation, DirectDraw, DirectInput, DirectMusic, DirectPlay, DirectShow, DirectSound, DirectX, Entourage, FoxPro, F Hotmail, Intel IntelliMouse, IntelliSense, JScript, MapPoint, Microsoft, Microsoft Press, Mobile Explorer, MS-DOS, MSN, Music Central, NetMeeting, Outlook, PhotoDraw, PowerPoint, SharePoint, Ultimate TV, Visio, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual FoxPro, Visual InterDev, Visual J++, Visual SourceSafe, Visual Studio, Win32, Win32s, Windows, Windows Media, Windows NT, Xbox are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. The example companies, organizations, products, domain names, e-mail addresses, logos, people, places, and events depicted herein are fictitious. No association with any real company, organization, product, domain name, e-mail address, logo, person, place, or event is intended or should be inferred. Acquisitions Editor: Alex Blanton Project Editor: Sandra Haynes CllSVA Body Part No. X08-41929 * Agent BASAHINDRA A CIMA pieces, and they act like pushbuttons, without the resis- tance and clear feedback of traditional keys. They are also much smaller and typically are spread out, so touch typing is more difficult than on a conventional keyboard. child n. 1. A process initiated by another process (the par- ent). This initiating action is frequently called a fork. The parent process often sleeps (is suspended) until the child process stops executing. 2. In a tree structure, the relation- ship of a node to its immediate predecessor. See also gen- eration (definition 2), tree structure. child directory n. See subdirectory, child menu n. See submenu. child process n. See child (definition 1). Children's Online Privacy Protection Act n. See COPPA chimes of doom n. In Macintosh computers, a series of chimes that sound as a result of serious system failure. in the extensions folder when the computer is turned on. See also Chooser, extension (definition 4). chroma n. The quality of a color that combines hue and saturation. See also hue, saturation. CHRP n. See Common Hardware Reference Platform. churn rate n. The rate of customer subscription turnover. In beeper, cell phone, and online businesses, it is common for customers to drop their monthly subscriptions, creating a churn rate as high as 2 or 3 percent per month. High churn rates are costly to companies because attracting new sub- scribers through advertising and promotion is expensive. CIDR n. See classless interdomain routing. CIFS n. See Common Internet File System. CIH virus n. A highly destructive virus that first appeared in early 1998. When activated, the CIH virus code will attempt to overwrite the flash BIOS of infected machines, rendering the computer unbootable. The CIH virus is also known as the Chernobyl virus because in its original form it was set to activate on the anniversary of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Although the CIH virus lacks stealth or sophisticated replication capabilities and is easily detected by current virus security programs, it continues to appear regularly. Also called: Chernobyl virus. See also virus. CIM n. 1. Acronym for Common Information Model. A conceptual specification supported by the Desktop Manage- ment Task Force (DMTF) for applying an object-oriented, Web-based model to describing management data in an enterprise network. Part of the DMTF's Web-Based Enter- prise Management initiative, CIM is a system-independent and application-independent common framework for describing and sharing management information. It is based on a three-tiered model based on schemas---sets of classes: the Core Schema covers all areas of management; Common Schemas cover specific management areas, such as net- works, applications, and devices; and Extension Schemas cover specific technologies, such as operating systems and applications. CIM is supported by a number of industry vendors, including Sun, IBM, Microsoft, and Cisco. See also DMTF, WBEM. 2. Acronym for computer-integrated manufacturing. The use of computers, communication lines, and specialized software to automate both the mana- gerial functions and the operational activities involved in the manufacturing process. A common database is used in all aspects of the process, from design through assembly, accounting, and resource management. Advanced CM chip n. See integrated circuit. chlp card n. See smart card. chip set or chipset n. A collection of chips designed to function as a unit in the performance of some common task. The term is most commonly used to refer to the set of integrated circuits, such as the programmable interrupt controller, that support a CPU together with the CPU itself. Often a chip set will fit on one chip. See also CPU, integrated circuit, programmable interrupt controller. choke n. See inductor. choose vb. To pick a command or an option from within a graphical user interface, as by clicking a button in a dia- log box or pulling down a menu and then releasing the mouse button on one of its options. Although select is often used instead of choose to describe the same action, choose is the preferred term because select has specific connotations within computing. See also select. Chooser n. On the Apple Macintosh, a desk accessory that allows the user to select a printer or a device on a net- work, such as a file server or a printer. Chooser extension n. A program that adds items to the Macintosh Chooser desk accessory. At system startup, Chooser adds to its menu of options from the extensions available in the system extensions folder. For example, if you want to use a particular printer with your Mac OS, you must have the right Chooser extension for that printer systems inte (CAD/CAE robotic asse ment of the computer-in tion stored o and graphics manipulated similar to pr in which im text or graph CIP n. 1. Shi Microsoft te business data such as the Ir supports enci ous transport and EDI valu invoices and through a trar by a receiver for the receiv ing Protocol. ing Task Forc indexing info ers with a stan contents of thi unable to reso the query to 01 information- particular user cipher n. 1. A ciphertext n. of an encrypte circuit n. 1. A 2. A combinati to perform a pé sists of a single of interconnect circult analyz more characteri rent, and resista measured. Osci circuit board as epoxy or phe nents are mount. VS? 98 p ase i 18-6600339-ADA Document 167-8 Filed 10/25/19 Page 5 of 7 0925 DESK BASKETS SUX decimal 4 w possibiy because the programmer hoe eliminated 11 two values: dB: quantity, r is the age and current measurements. decimal n. The (definition 2). decision box r. denoting a deci: cess being cons ERIKALNdesh Get keypre S .. dead code n. Program code that never gets executed, rogrammer has eliminated all refer- ences to it, or possibly because the program is written in such a way that the instruction(s) will never be needed- for example, an ELSE statement would never be needed in an IF condition that always proved to be true. Dead code can slow program execution and increase the size of the program in memory. Also called: grunge, software rot. dead halt n. A machine stop with no hope of recovery by either the program or the operating system. The only choice after a dead halt is to reboot. Also called: drop- dead halt. See also hang. Compare reboot. dead key n. A key used with another key to create an accented character. When pressed, a dead key produces no visible character (hence its name) but indicates that the accent mark it represents is to be combined with the next key pressed. See also key (definition 1). dead-letter box n. In e-mail or message systems, a file to which undeliverable messages are sent. deadlock n. 1. A situation that occurs when two pro- grams or devices are each waiting for a response from the other before continuing. Also called: deadly embrace. 2. In operating systems, a situation in which two or more processes are prevented from continuing while each waits for resources to be freed by the continuation of the other. 3. In computer games, a deadlock occurs when the resources needed to continue the game become unavail- able to the player. The deadlock condition could be inten- tional, such as a loss condition, or a design error on the part of the game developer. See also computer games. deadly embrace n. See deadlock. deallocate vb. To free previously allocated memory. See also pointer. Compare allocate. deblock vb. To remove one or more logical records (units of stored information) from a block, Application or data- base systems must often deblock information to make spe- cific units of information available for processing. Compare block? (definition 1). debounce algorithm n. A set of instructions that makes an assumption about how fast a user can press and release a switch and then ensures that only one press is registered in the time specified. debug vb. To detect, locate, and correct logical or syntac- tical errors in a program or malfunctions in hardware. In hardware contexts, the term troubleshoot is the term more often used, especially when the problem is a major one. See also bug, debugger. debugger n. A program designed to aid in debugging another program by allowing the programmer to step through the program, examine the data, and monitor con- ditions such as the values of variables. See also bug (defi- nition 1), debug. deca- prefix Metric prefix meaning 10—that is, 10 to the first power, or 101 decay n. A decrease in the amplitude of a signal over time. DECchip 21064 n. A Digital Equipment Corporation microprocessor introduced in February 1992. The DEC- chip 21064 is a 64-bit, RISC-based, superscalar, super- pipelined chip with 64-bit registers, a 64-bit data bus, a 64-bit address bus, and a 128-bit data path between the microprocessor and memory. It also has a built-in 8-KB instruction cache, a built-in 8-KB data cache, and a float- ing-point processor. The DECchip 21064 contains 1.7 mil- lion transistors and operates at 3.3 volts. The 200-MHz version runs at a peak rate of 400 MPS. The chip's archi- tecture is SMP compliant, so that several chips can be used in a parallel (multiprocessor) configuration. See also floating-point processor, MIPS, pipelining (definition 1), RISC, superpipelining, superscalar deceleration time n. The time required for an access arm to come to a stop as it approaches the desired portion of a disk. The faster the arm moves, the more momentum it gains and the greater the deceleration time, decentralized processing n. The distribution of com- puter processing facilities in more than one location. Decentralized processing is not the same as distributed processing, which assigns multiple computers to the same task to increase efficiency. deci- prefix Metric prefix meaning 10-1 (one-tenth). decibel n. One tenth of a bel (named after Alexander Graham Bell), a unit used in electronics and other fields to measure the strength of a sound or signal. Decibel measurements fall on a logarithmic scale and compare the measured quantity against a known reference. The following formula gives the number of decibels between .. Yes. . .... Decision box. decision supi related data de making. A dec formulating de system (MIS) includes a dat: ject area, a "la questions, and decisions. Acr system, mana decision tab (inputs) and ti each conditio liminary anal: and incorpora decislon tres instrument wł represented as branches. See. 148 SIGN SIGN Mola Mala & DATE & DATE ETAG. firewall firewall sandwich fixed-width spacing r has chosen to sup- ame, finger returns or last names match, a user by means of ystem to discover uter is running. By gerprinting, a on system vulnera- n an attack on that erent fingerprinting inpoint the OS of a or attached to a file e digital watermark, eads human finger- stored fingerprint gy used to control device or to a s. The patterns of fingerprint reader ed images of fin- lso biometric. Usually a combination of hardware and software, a fire- wall prevents computers in the organization's network from communicating directly with computers external to the network and vice versa. Instead, all communication is routed through a proxy server outside of the organization's network, and the proxy server decides whether it is safe to let a particular message or file pass through to the organi- zation's network. See also proxy server. firewall sandwich n. The use of load balancing appli- ances on both sides of Internetworked firewalls to distrib- ute both inbound and outbound traffic among the firewalls. The firewall sandwich architecture helps to pre- vent firewalls from degrading network performance and creating a single point of network failure. See also fire- wall, load balancing. FireWire n. A high-speed serial bus from Apple that implements the IEEE 1394 standard. See also IEEE 1394. firmware n. Software routines stored in read-only mem- ory (ROM). Unlike random access memory (RAM), read- only memory stays intact even in the absence of electrical power. Startup routines and low-level input/output instruc- tions are stored in firmware. It falls between software and hardware in terms of ease of modification. See also RAM, ROM. FIR port n. Short for fast infrared port. A wireless I/O port, most common on a portable computer, that exchanges data with an external device using infrared light. See also infrared, input/output port. FIRST n. Acronym for Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams. An organization within the Internet Soci- ety (ISOC) that coordinates with CERT in order to encour- age information sharing and a unified response to security threats. See also CERT, Internet Society. first-generation computer n. See computer. first in, first out n. A method of processing a queue, in which items are removed in the same order in which they were added the first in is the first out. Such an order is typical of a list of documents waiting to be printed. Acro- nym: FIFO. See also queue. Compare last in, first out. first normal n. See normal form (definition 1). fishbowl n. A secure area within a computer system in which intruders can be contained and monitored. A fish- bowl is typically set up by a security administrator to impersonate important applications or information so that the system administrator can learn more about hackers who have broken into the network without the hacker learning more about or damaging the system. See also honeypot. fitting n. The calculation of a curve or other line that most closely approximates a set of data points or measurements. See also regression analysis. five-nines availability n. The availability of a system 99.999 percent of the time. See also high availability. FIX n. Acronym for Federal Internet Exchange. A con- nection point between the U.S. government's various internets and the Internet. There are two Federal Internet Exchanges: FIX West, in Mountain View, California; and FIX East, in College Park, Maryland. Together, they link the backbones of MILNET, ESnet (the TCP/IP network of the Department of Energy), and NSInet (NASA Sciences Internet) with NSFnet. See also backbone (definition 1), MILNET, NSFnet, TCP/IP. fixed disk n. See hard disk. fixed-length field n. In a record or in data storage, a field whose size in bytes is predetermined and constant. A fixed-length field always takes up the same amount of space on a disk, even when the amount of data stored in the field is small. Compare variable-length field. fixed-pitch spacing n. See monospacing. fixed-point arithmetic n. Arithmetic performed on fixed-point numbers. See also fixed-point notation. fixed-point notation n. A numeric format in which the decimal point has a specified position. Fixed-point numbers are a compromise between integral formats, which are com- pact and efficient, and floating-point numeric formats, which have a great range of values. Like floating-point numbers, fixed-point numbers can have a fractional part, but operations on fixed-point numbers usually take less time than floating- point operations. See also floating-point notation, integer. fixed space n. A set amount of horizontal space used to separate characters in text-often, the width of a numeral in a given font. See also em space, en space, thin space. fixed spacing n. See monospacing. fixed storage n. Any nonremovable storage, such as a large disk that is sealed permanently in its drive. fixed-width font n. See monospace font. fixed-width spacing n. See monospacing. sing Standards. formation Pro- ment standard, ards and Technol- ents for Crypto- ur levels of raphic hardware ind telecommuni- classified data.; module design hysical security 1 features as hard- c algorithms, and 10-1 products can nited States and le Cryptographic eloped and n Communica- ptography. protect an orga- 3, such as hack- s the Internet. 215 DOBERADA Document 167-8Filou 107255Page 7 of 7 Microsoft ENTRIES Speak the language of computers and the Internet with the MICROSOFT COMPUTER DICTIONARY! Computer Dictionary Fifth Edition Comprehensive content: Covers everything from smartphones to super- servers, 10Base2 to;-) Defines and illustrates: Helpful diagrams and drawings complete the picture for complex topics The ultimate reference for home, office, or wherever technology takes you! 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