Bicameral LLC v. NXP USA, Inc. et al

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2018-cv-00294

Exhibit Hansquine Ex. 3

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Hansquine Declaration Exhibit 3 MODERN DICTIONARY of ELECTRONICS SIXTH EDITION REVISED AND UPDATED Rudolf F. Graf Newnes Boston Oxford Johannesburg Melbourne New Delhi Singapore BC_GEN_0003640 Pre Newnes is an imprint of Butterworth-Heinemann Copyright © 1997 by Butterworth-Heinemann R A member of the Reed Elsevier group All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. O Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, Butterworth-Heinemann prints its books on acid-free paper whenever possible. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Graf, Rudolf F. Modern dictionary of electronics / by Rudolf F. Graf. – 6th ed. p. cm. Reprint. Originally published: Indianapolis, Ind.: H.W. Sams, © 1984. ISBN 0-7506-9870-5 1. Electronics—Dictionaries. TK7804.G67 1996 96-25894 621.381°03dc 20 CIP We are in the midst of a high advances in electronics and closely To keep up with this exciting indus reflect the ever-expanding vocabulai ics. It must not only record additio explain terms with authority in th: quely suited to its time and place. Those who work in new areas: effectively communicate thoughts a tion. Originators of newly coined te definitions frequently change with actual use by others. Every new edition of this dictiona of the electronics industry. It is a electronics dedicated to the task of munication, deriving its authority which its content were collected and a clear and simple style that is unde level of complexity of the term bei prise that this sixth edition of th probably the most up-to-date el contains definitions of approximate and related fields. This includes 5 fifth edition published in 1977, as filled the first edition published on were reviewed and revised or ex enhance the intelligibility of each e definitions requiring no further i updated, modified and augmented While this work is as up-to-date the field of electronics is expanding evolve and established terms take ings. The publisher intends to iss periodically; thus suggestions for welcomed. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. The publisher offers special discounts on bulk orders of this book. For information, please contact: Manager of Special Sales Butterworth-Heinemann 313 Washington Street Newton, MA 02158-1626 Tel: 617-928-2500 Fax: 617-928-2620 For information on all Newnes electronics publications available, contact our World Wide Web home page at: Edited by: Charlie Buffington and Jack Davis Illustrated by: T.R. Emrick Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 BC_GEN_0003641 ctrons 352 353 evaporative deposition-exchange plant ENUATOR BIFILIAR HELICES COLLECTOR ty TI COLLECTOR COOLING FINS Estiatron. ttern king. tion, con- 3. A pina- tially of all emi- es in con- used is hing e of y or un- erial which occurs on the surface of a cathode during emission. It is analogous to the cooling of a liquid or solid as it evaporates. evaporative deposition-The process of condensing a thin film of evaporated material upon a substrate. Evaporation usually is produced by heating a material in a high vacuum. evaporation materials-Metals used for evaporation charges and sputtering targets, including chromium and its alloys, for (a) a thin adhesive layer on IC substrates to allow better deposition of gold or other metal, (b) resistor material, and (c) vacuum deposition in mask prod- uction. evaporation sources - Boats and fila- ments used as heat sources for vacuum evaporation to form thin layers on sub- strates. The process is frequently done by resistively heating the evaporant in a ceramic crucible or by self-heating of boats constructed of tungsten, molybde- num, or tantalum. E-vector – A vector representing the electric field of an electromagnetic wave. In free space it is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. even harmonic-Any harmonic that is an even multiple (2, 4, 6, etc.) of the funda- mental frequency. The even harmonics of 60 Hz are 120 Hz, 240 Hz, 360 Hz, etc. event counter - Instrument that records and totalizes occurring events; can include time of occurrence of events. even parity-1. Parity bit that is added to a word so that the total number of ones is even. 2. The condition that occurs when the sum of the number of ones in a binary word is always even. event flag-In a computer, an easily im- plemented synchronization mechanism that can be used for passing messages and data buffers between two cooperating tasks. E-wave-Designation for tm (transverse magnetic) wave, one of the two classes of electromagnetic waves that can be sent through waveguides. EX-In a calculator, it is the abbreviation for exchange key. Interchanges the last entry with the preceding value in the calculator. exalted-carrier receiver - A receiver that counteracts selective fading by main- taining the carrier at a high level at all times. exalted-carrier reception - A method of receiving either amplitude- or phase- modulated signals in which the carrier is separated from the sidebands, filtered and amplified, and then recombined with the sidebands at a higher level prior to demodulation. except gate - A gate in which the speci- fied combination of pulses producing an output pulse is the presence of a pulse on one or more input lines and the absence of a pulse on one or more other input lines. exception - In a computer, a condition which is out of the ordinary in normal task execution; e.g., arithmetic overflow. excess carriers - Any carriers present in a semiconductor material or region, in addition to those present in equilibrium. excess conduction - Conduction by excess electrons in a semiconductor. excess electron - An electron introduced into a semiconductor by a donor impurity and available to promote conduction. An excess electron is not required to com- plete the bond structure of the semicon- ductor. excess fifty-In a computer, a represen- tation in which a number N is denoted by the equivalent of (N plus 50). excess meter – An electricity meter which measures and registers the integral, with respect to time, of those portions of the active power in excess of the prede- termined value. excess minority carriers-In a semicon- ductor, the number of minority carriers that exceed the normal equilibrium number. excess modified index of refraction - See Refractive Modulus. excess noise - Noise resulting from the passage of current through a semiconduc- tor material. Also called current noise, bulk noise, and 1/f noise. excess sound pressure - The total instantaneous pressure at a point in a medium containing sound waves, minus the static pressure when no sound waves are present. The unit is the dyne per square centimeter. excess-three bed – Excess-three binary coded decimal. Pertaining to a code based on adding 3 to a decimal digit and then converting the result directly to binary form. Use of this code simplifies the exe- cution of certain mathematical operations in a binary computer that must handle decimal numbers. exchange-To remove the contents of one storage unit of a computer and place it in a second, at the same time placing the contents of the second storage unit into the first. exchange cable – A lead-covered, non- quadded, paper-insulated cable used in providing cable pairs between local sub- scribers and a central office. exchange code – The three digits follow- ing an area code in a telephone number. exchange key-See EX. exchange line - A line that joins a sub- scriber or switchboard to a commercial exchange. exchange plant- Facilities used to serve the needs of subscribers as distinguished to the ety - Abbreviation for educational ty. A nonprofit television station operating to serve community needs in the areas of instruction and cultural development. eureka - The ground transponder of secondary radar system rebecca-eureka. eutectic - 1. An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid solution is con- verted into two or more intimately mixed solids on cooling, the number of solids formed being the same as the number of components in the system. 2. An alloy having the composition indicated by the eutectic point on an equilibrium diagram. 3. An alloy structure of intermixed solid constituents formed by a eutectic reac- tion. 4. Referring to an alloy or solid solu- tion that has the lowest possible melting point, usually below that of its compo- nents. 5. The most fusible series of alloys (e.g., 37/63 tin-lead solder). eutectic alloy - 1. A combination of two or more metals that has a sharply defined melting point and no plastic range. 2. An alloy with a low and sharp melting point which converts from a solid to a liquid state at a specific recurring point. Used in thermal overload devices. eutectic bonding - Formation of a met- allurgical joint in similar or dissimilar metals through the introduction of a thin film of another metal at the joint inter- face. Upon application of heat and mod- erate pressure, the intermediate film and the metals to be joined form a molten eutectic phase, which is then eliminated from the joint by thermal diffusion into the base metals. eutectic solder-Solder that has the low- est possible melting point for its combina- tion of elements. Eutectic tin-lead solder is composed of 63 percent tin and 37 per- cent lead. It melts at 361°F. Eutectic tin- silver solder has 96.5 percent tin with 3.5 percent silver, and melts at 430°F. eV (or ev) - Abbreviation for electron- volt. evaporation-The deposition in high vac- uum of insulation which is thermally lib- erated from a parent source. Silica films of low optical absorption have been pro- duced by electron bombardment of the parent oxide. evaporation of electrons - The cooling the un- ally ing un- fa the cial of ys- ng all For s. er- E- S+ es BC_GEN_0003661 one system 514 515 interpolate-interrupter ctance orce of rent is ational ational wys. gy re- al cou- poten- l volt. -00018 - Also of dot- terna- differs certain Morse nguage nce at niform ers in grams. 00048 Com- terna- hnical aining multi- issues) the itions practices, including frequency allocation and radio regulations on a worldwide basis. Also see ITU. International Telegraph Consultative Committee - Abbreviated CCIT. An international committee responsible for studying technical operating and tariff questions pertaining to telegraph and fac- simile and issuing recommendations. It reports to the International Telecommuni- cations Union. international telephone address – A code not exceeding 12 digits which speci- fies a unique address for any telephone in the world. It consists of: (a) a country or regional identity code of one, two, or three digits; (b) a three-digit numbering plan area code; (c) a two or three digit central office code; plus (d) a four-digit station number. International Telephone Consultative Committee - Abbreviated CCIF. An international committee responsible for studying and issuing recommendations regarding technical operations and tariff questions pertaining to ordinary tele- phones; carrier telephones; and music, picture, television, and multichannel tele- graph transmission over wire line. It reports to the International Telecommuni- cation Union. international temperature scale - A temperature scale adopted in 1948 by international agreement. Between the boiling point of oxygen (- 182.97°C) and 630.5°C it is based upon the platinum re- sistance thermometer. From 630.5°C to 1063.0°C it is based on the platinum rho- dium thermocouple, and above 1063.0°C on the optical pyrometer. international volt-The voltage that will produce a current of one international ampere through a resistance of one inter- national ohm. One international volt equals 1.00033 absolute volts. international watt - The power expended when one international ampere flows between two points having a poten- tial difference of one international volt. One international watt equals 1.00018 absolute watts. internode - Communication paths that originate in one node and terminate in another. interoffice trunk - The telephone chan- nel between two central offices. interphase transformer-An autotrans- former or a set of mutually coupled reac- tors used with three-phase rectifier trans- formers to modify current relationships in the rectifier system and thereby cause a greater number of rectifier tubes to carry current at any instant. interphone-A telephone communication system wholly contained within an air- craft, ship, or activity. interphone system-An intercommunica- tion system like that in an aircraft or other mobile unit. interpolate-To estimate the values of a function which are intermediate between those already known. interpolation-1. The process of finding a value of a function between two known values. Interpolation may be performed numerically or graphically. 2. The pro- cess of determining a reading falling be- tween two adjacent graduations on an analog meter scale. interpole - A small auxiliary pole placed between the main poles of a direct- current generator or motor to reduce sparking at the commutator. interposition trunk - A trunk connect- ing two positions of a large switchboard so that a line on one position can be con- nected to a line on the other position. interpreter - 1. A punch-card machine which will read the information conveyed by holes punched in a card and print its translation in characters arranged in spec- ified rows and columns on the card. 2. A computer executive routine by which a stored program expressed in pseudocode is translated into machine code as a com- putation progresses, and the indicated op- eration is performed by means of subrou- tines as they are translated. 3. A computer program that translates and executes each source instruction separately. 4. Pro- grams that translate an assembled pro- gram into a complete machine-code list- ing on a line-by-line basis. If a statement is used in a program 10 times, it will be translated 10 times. 5. A high-level lan- guage processor that reads the source statements and immediately executes ma- chine language subroutines in order to perform the functions designated by the source statements. 6. In a computer a lan- guage translator that accepts high-level language (e.g., BASIC or Pascal) input text and translates this text into a special intermediate code that is simulated (interpreted) by a system program. Usu- ally this intermediate code cannot be di- rectly executed on a general purpose proc- essor. 7. A program that calls on subroutines to execute a program. Exam- ple: add two numbers, then divide by another number. BASIC is usually imple- mented as an interpreter. 8. Software which performs functions described in a computer program written in a language higher than the machine language or for another computer without preconverting the entire program to machine code. 9. A program that executes instructions from the source (user) language, as each is encountered, and without converting the source language into machine language. An interpreted program is slow-as much as 20 times slower than an assembled program-but speeds up program devel- opment because the effect of source changes can be seen immediately. interpreter code – A computer code which an interpretive routine can use. interpretive programming - The writ- ing of computer programs in a pseudo ma- chine language, which the computer pre- cisely converts into actual machine- language instructions before performing them. interpretive routine-Computer routine designed to transfer each pseudocode and, using function digits, to set a branch order that links the appropriate subrou- tine into the main program. interrecord gap - Also called interblock space. See IRGIA interrogate-1. To determine the state of a device or circuit. 2. Retrieve informa- tion from computer files by use of prede- fined inquiries or unstructured queries handled by a high-level retrieval language. interrogation - The triggering of one or more transponders by transmitting a radio signal or combination of signals. interrogation signal - A pulsed or cw signal emitted to initiate a reply signal from a transponder or responder. interrogation suppressed time delay - The overall fixed time that elapses be- tween transmission of an interrogation and reception of the reply to this interro- gation at zero distance. interrogator - Also called challenger. A radio transmitter used to trigger a transponder. interrogator-responser – A combined radio transmitter and receiver for interro- gating a transponder and displaying the replies. interrupt- 1. In a computer, a break in the normal flow of a system or routine such that the flow can be resumed from that point at a later time. The source of the interrupt may be internal or external. 2. A method of stopping a process and identifying that a certain condition exists. In graphic systems, interrupts can origi- nate from data entry devices, the display list, the host computer, the refresh clock, and display error conditions. When an interrupt occurs, the host computer and display refresh cease until the interrupt is answered and processed. At that time, the host computer will restart the refresh- usually from where it was halted. If a new display list is to be presented, the display starts at the beginning of the list. 3. To disrupt temporarily the normal execution of a program by a special signal from the computer. 4. To stop a process so that it cannot be automatically resumed. interrupted continuous waves-Abbre- viated icw. Continuous waves that are interrupted at an audio-frequency rate. interrupt enable-See Interrupt Mark. interrupter - 1. A magnetically operated Three- com- • each only. is are cy for 1 and Pasur- ies by. Re- values) the pere. i cen- il sys- ween gree- ry 1, iorgi) ser- e be- erent at are ect to ition lized nica- dard- and BC_GEN_0003666 memory-mheasey@esbaar VRO294-ADA Document 44-12 Giled 08/12/19 Page 6 of 6 thus reducing the resistance of the sub modes are direct, immediate, relative, cally, front-panel scope controls provide strate. Reversing the current reverses the indexed, and indirect. (These modes are expansion over a 1 x to 10 x range. process, increasing the resistance of the important factors in program efficiency.) memory fill-In a computer, the placing substrate. memory allocation - In a computer, a of a pattern of characters in the memory memory - 1. The equipment and media technique of allocating memory to proc- registers not in use in a particular prob- used to hold machine-language informa esses or devices. lem to stop the computer if the program, tion in electrical or magnetic form. Usu memory array-In a computer, the mem- through error, seeks instructions taken ally, the word "memory" means storage ory cells arranged in a rectangular geo- from forbidden registers. within a control system, whereas "stor metric pattern on a chip and organized in memory hierarchy - A set of computer age" is used to refer to magnetic drums, rows and columns. memories with differing sizes and speeds MOS devices, disks, cores, tapes, punched memory buffer register-In a comput- and usually having different cost- cards, etc., external to the control system. er, a register in which a word is stored as performance ratios. A hierarchy might Either term means collecting and holding it comes from memory (reading) or just consist of a very high-speed, small pertinent information until it is needed prior to its entering memory (writing). semiconductor memory, a medium-speed by the computer. 2. The tendency of a memory capacity-See Storage Capacity. core memory and a large, slow-speed material to return to its original shape memory cell - A single storage element core. after having been deformed. 3. Any of a memory, together with the associated memory light-In a calculator, indicates device or circuit capable of storing a dig circuits for inserting and removing one there is a number in the memory. ital word or words. 4. The component of a bit of information. memory map - A listing of addresses or computer, control system, guidance sys memory circuit - A circuit which, hav- symbolic representations of addresses tem, instrumented satellite or the like de ing been placed in a particular state by an which define the boundaries of the memo- signed to provide ready access to data or input signal, will remain in that state after ry address space occupied by a program instructions previously recorded so as to the removal of the input signal. or a series of programs. Memory maps make them bear upon an immediate prob memory counter-Also called rewind. A can be produced by a high-level language lem. 5. That part of a computer that holds system which allows recording tape to be such as FORTRAN data and instructions. Each instruction or rewound automatically to any predeter- memory-mapped i/o-Operations per- datum is assigned a unique address that is mined point on the tape. formed by reading and writing to memory used by the CPU when fetching or storing memory cycle-1. In a computer, an op- locations dedicated to a device. the information. 6. The storage capability eration consisting of reading from and memory module - A processor module or location in a computer system which writing into memory. 2. The operations consisting of memory storage and capable receives and holds information for later required for addressing, reading, writing, of storing a finite number of words (e.g., use. Also, the storage arrangement, such and/or reading and writing data in 4096 words in a 4K memory module). as RAM or other type. memory. Storage capacity is usually rounded off and abbreviated with K representing each 1024 words. memory + and - keys - In a computer, MEMORY direct access to the memory for storing numbers. On machines without these, the memory has to be addressed first and the working register + and - keys used to READ-ONLY READ/ store a number in the memory. MEMORY WRITE MEMORY memory protection-1. The mechanism used to prevent accidental writing into a computer memory location or area. 2. A method of ensuring that the contents of ROM PROM RAM SEMI RAM SERIAL main memory within certain variable lim- its are not altered or inadvertently de- CONVENTIONAL CORE DISC SHIFT REGISTER stroyed. See Storage Protection. SEMICONDUCTOR CCDs MAGNETIC TAPE DRUM MEMORY PAPER TAPE memory register - 1. Also called high- BUBBLE MEMORY speed bus, distributor, or exchange regis- ter. In some computers, a register used in FUSIBLE EROM all data and instruction transfers between EAROM ROM the memory, the arithmetic unit, and the ELECTRICALLY control register. 2. A register in a calcula- ERASABLE ALTERABLE tor in which the contents can be added to ROM ROM or subtracted from without being recalled, Memory types. or which can be recalled for other opera- tions. The contents are available for memory address register-1. The CPU memory dump - In a computer, a proc- repeated recall until the register is register in a computer, which holds the ess of writing the contents of memory cleared. address of the memory location being consecutively in such a form that it can be memory relay - A relay in which each of accessed. 2. A multiple-bit register that examined for computer or program two or more coils may operate indepen- keeps track of where instructions are errors. dent sets of contacts, and another set of stored in the main memory. memory expansion - Expansion of the contacts remains in a position determined memory addressing modes – The horizontal and/or vertical memory con- by the coil last energized. The term is method of specifying the memory loca t ents in a digital scope for easy viewing of sometimes erroneously used for polarized tion and an operand. Common addressing critical parts of a stored waveform. Typi- relay. GOEE ROM UV BC_GEN_0003667