Denovo Lighting, LLC v. Norman Lamps, Inc.

Northern District of Illinois, ilnd-1:2016-cv-05965

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Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 1 of 23 PageID #:10 Exhibit A To The Complaint Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 2 of 23 PageID #:11 US008729809B2 (12) United States Patent (10) Patent N0.: US 8,729,809 B2 Kit et a]. (45) Date of Patent: May 20, 2014 (54) VOLTAGE REGULATING DEVICES IN LED 6,323,598 B1 11/2001 Guthrie et a1. LAMPS WITH MULTIPLE POWER SOURCES 6,461,019 B1 10/2002 Allen 6,501,084 B1 12/2002 Sakai et a1. 6,577,072 B2 6/2003 Saito et a1. (75) Inventors: John Kit, Brooklyn, NY (US); 6,590,343 B2 7/2003 Pederson Georgiana Hsu, Bronx, NY (U S) 6,650,064 B2 11/2003 Guthrie et a1. 6,760,380 B1 7/2004 Andersen 73 Assi 8nee: DeNovo Lig hting, LLC, Flushin8,NY 7,015,650 B2 3/2006 McGrath (Us) 7,053,560 B1 5/2006 Ng 7,157,859 B2 1/2007 Inoue 7,489,086 B2 2/2009 Miskin et a1. * Notice: Sub'ect J to any disclaimer, the term of this 7,618,165 B2 11/2009 Kamiya et a1. patent is extended or adjusted under 35 2005/0174065 A1* 8/2005 Janning .................... .. 315/185 S U.S.C. 154(b) by 281 days. 2006/0244396 A1* 11/2006 Bucur ......................... .. 315/312 OTHER PUBLICATIONS (21) Appl.No.: 12/653,983 U.S. Publication No. 2006/0261362 issued to Noda et al. on Nov. 23, (22) Filed: Dec. 22, 2009 2006. (65) Prior Publication Data * cited by examiner US 2011/0057572 A1 Mar. 10, 2011 Primary Examiner * Douglas W Owens Related US. Application Data Assistant Examiner * Jonathan Cooper (60) Provisional application No. 61/276,095, ?led on Sep. (74) Attorney, Agent, or Firm * Fox Rothschild LLP 8, 2009. (57) ABSTRACT (51) Int. Cl. LED driver circuits containing voltage reducing devices, H053 37/02 (2006.01) voltage regulating devices, and voltage converting devices (52) US. Cl. are disclosed as the main components to provide power to USPC .................................. .. 315/185 R; 315/185 S LEDs. The LED driver circuits are designed to work with a (58) Field of Classi?cation Search ballast, mains alternating current voltage, direct current volt USPC ......................................... .. 315/185 R, 1858 age, and electromagnetic induction power. The voltage regu See application ?le for complete search history. lating devices can be a resistor in series with at least one zener diode or a voltage regulator both in parallel with and provid (56) References Cited ing power to the LEDs. The LEDs can also be anti-parallel diode pairs consisting of one diode and one LED or two U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS LEDs, or the LEDs can be anti-parallel diode string pairs 4,211,955 A 7/1980 Ray consisting of diodes and LEDs or all LEDs. The LED driver 4,460,863 A 7/1984 Conforti circuits will be incorporated into LED replacement lamps, 4,939,426 A 7/1990 Menard et al. and in particular to LED lamps to replace ?uorescent lamps 5,552,678 A 9/1996 Tang et al. for use with existing ballasts and other power sources where 5,914,501 A 6/1999 Antle et a1. 5,939,839 A 8/1999 Robel et al. the ballast may be removed or bypassed. 6,150,771 A 11/2000 Perry 6,203,180 B1 3/2001 Fleischmann 43 Claims, 8 Drawing Sheets /10 50/ 20-/ "20 Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 3 of 23 PageID #:12 US. Patent May 20, 2014 Sheet 1 0f 8 US 8,729,809 B2 I i a l [I 4 an ImN -om Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 4 of 23 PageID #:13 Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 5 of 23 PageID #:14 US. Patent B4ay20,2014 Sheet30f8 US 8,729,809 B2 // 2/ 1mg: E Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 6 of 23 PageID #:15 US. Patent May 20, 2014 Sheet 4 0f8 US 8,729,809 B2 O ~08 NN /190 260 FIG.4 Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 7 of 23 PageID #:16 US. Patent May 20, 2014 Sheet 5 0f 8 US 8,729,809 B2 ma1|?4/ com \\owN mwN Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 8 of 23 PageID #:17 US. Patent May 20, 2014 Sheet 6 0f 8 US 8,729,809 B2 / ovm m Nm 18m 1/<¢mm |1 mi Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 9 of 23 PageID #:18 US. Patent May 20, 2014 Sheet 7 0f 8 US 8,729,809 B2 Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 10 of 23 PageID #:19 US. Patent May 20, 2014 Sheet 8 0f8 US 8,729,809 B2 00 E @w: ' We"??? W'" -395 / Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 11 of 23 PageID #:20 US 8,729,809 B2 1 2 VOLTAGE REGULATING DEVICES IN LED devices that have pins or leads that are soldered on the same LAMPS WITH MULTIPLE POWER SOURCES side as the components. As a result there is no need for feed through holes where solder is applied on both sides of the RELATED PRIORITY APPLICATION circuit boards. Therefore, surface mount LEDs can be used on single sided boards and are mounted ?at to the surface with This application claims the bene?t of priority of US. Pro out angular offsets. They are usually smaller in package size, visional Application No. 61/276,095, ?led on Sep. 8, 2009 and the beam spreads are wider than discrete radial lead LED and entitled, "Voltage Regulating Devices in LED Lamps lamps. with Multiple Power Sources", the entirety of which is incor OLEDs or organic light emitting diodes are an up and porated herein by reference. coming technology for illumination lamp devices.An organic light emitting diode (OLED), also light emitting polymer FIELD OF THE INVENTION (LEP), and organic electro luminescence (OEL), is an LED whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a The present invention relates to driver circuits for light ?lm of organic compounds. The layer usually contains a emitting diode illumination lamp devices powered by differ polymer substance that allows suitable organic compounds to ent types of power sources. be deposited. They are deposited in rows and columns onto a ?at carrier by a simple "printing" process. The resulting BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION matrix of pixels can emit light. OLEDs can be used in light sources for general space illumination and large area light There are many LED retro?t and replacement lamps in the 20 emitting elements. OLEDs typically emit less light per area market today. In particular, linear LED lamps are becoming than inorganic solid-state based LEDs that are usually more available by different manufacturers to replace ?uores designed for use as point-light sources. cent lamps using existing lampholders in ?xtures. There are An LED or light emitting diode is a special diode that emits LED lamps that are powered by existing ballasts. There are light when DC power is applied. Each LED can be arranged in LED lamps that are powered by direct line alternating current 25 an anti-parallel connection with another diode or another voltage mains power where the ballast and starter if present is LED as a single pair or as part of a pair of anti-parallel diode bypassed or removed. There are LED lamps that are powered strings. Each anti-parallel serial string of at least one diode by a DC power supply or direct current voltage LED driver. pair is in series with a current limiting device such as a resistor Lastly, there are LED lamps that can be powered by electro or a capacitor. The current limiting capacitor can be used for magnetic induction. For each LED lamp and power source 30 AC voltages, but will block DC power to the LEDs. There combination, a unique circuit is designed speci?cally to oper fore, the resistor is a preferred device for the present inven ate the LEDs with that particular power supply. tion, because it will allow bothAC and DC voltages to pass to There becomes a need for one LED lamp with a circuit the series string of anti-parallel diode pairs. design that will work for multiple power sources. The one An anti-parallel connection has at least two diodes con LED lamp will allow for reduced inventory and lower pro 35 nected to each other in opposing parallel relation, at least one duction costs. The use of voltage regulating devices along or both such diodes are each an LED. The diode pairs are with other electrical components will allow the LED lamp to connected in parallel such that an anode of a ?rst diode in the be used with ballast power, alternating current voltage or VAC pair is electrically connected to the cathode of the other sec mains power, direct current voltage or VDC power, and ond diode in the pair, and the anode of the second diode is inductive transfer power. 40 electrically connected to the cathode of the ?rst diode in the Voltage regulating devices include the family of voltage pair. One of each pair of diodes is thus forward biased to regulators including but not limited to electromechanical produce light regardless of the instantaneous polarity of elec regulators, DC voltage stabilizers, active regulators, linear trical current supplied to the diode pair by the power source. series regulators, switching regulators, combination (hybrid) The anti-parallel diode pairs can also consist of at least two regulators, constant current regulators, DC-to-DC converter 45 anti-parallel diode strings separated into two separate diode regulators, buck converter regulators, boost converter regula strings that can conduct in opposite electrical directions. tors, Zener shunts, zener clamps, zener clippers, DC-to-AC Within each anti-parallel diode string pair, a same number of converter regulators, inverters, etc. diodes are electrically connected with each number of diodes The additional use of voltage reducing devices will allow that can conduct in a different electrical direction. A current the LED lamp to withstand high voltage surges from the 50 limiting resistor is connected to the anti-parallel diode string ballast during startup, and voltage transients during normal pair at one point and the value of the resistor is selected to operation of the LED lamp. These devices work with bothAC reduce the input power to activate one of the two diode strings and DC power. Several technologies are available to defend in the anti-parallel diode string pair one at a time. At least one equipment against the damaging effects of power surges. or all diodes in each anti-parallel diode string pair is each an These include devices which protect against excessive cur 55 LED. rent, such as fuses and PTCs, and those that protect against Besides using individual and discrete components in most excessive voltages, such as Sidactors, Tranzorbs, MOVs, implementation of the invention, the diodes in each pair will glass discharge tubes, zener diodes, resistors, capacitors, be normal single-die LEDs. Another aspect of the invention inductors, varistors and spark gaps, just to name a few. No provides, however for a multi-die LED such that the diode step-down transformers or capacitors in series with the power 60 pair comprises at least two LED dies mounted with reverse source will be used. This will allow the LED lamp device of polarity within a single LED casing. It should be noted that the present invention to be used with the multiple power "package" or "packaged" or "PCB" is de?ned herein as an sources described. integrated unit meant to be used as a discrete component in The LED lamp device of the present invention can use either of the manufacture, assembly, installation, or modi? different types of LEDs. High brightness LEDs are available 65 cation of an LED lighting device or system. in discrete radial lead lamps, or in surface mount SMD or Such a package includes LEDs of desired characteristics in SMT packages. Surface mount LEDs are semiconductor series with current limiting resistors sized relative to the Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 12 of 23 PageID #:21 US 8,729,809 B2 3 4 speci?cations of the chosen opposing parallel diodes and with comprising at least one LED with each LED ?xed in holders. respect to a predetermined AC voltage and frequency. The The preferred embodiments of the present invention in con Acriche Emitter type is a discrete AC LED and the Acriche trast, use no holders for the LEDs. The LEDs are mounted PCB type is an AC LED package that is offered by Seoul directly to circuit boards. In addition, voltage reducing Semiconductor as the world's ?rst AC-driven semiconductor devices are used to protect the electrical components and lighting sources. LEDs from an overvoltage surge condition either from a ballast during startup or from voltage transients during nor DESCRIPTION OF THE RELATED ART mal operation of the LED lamp. US. Pat. No. 6,323,598 issued to Guthrie et al. on Nov. 27, There are many references that contain designs for provid 2001 discloses an LED driver for voltage-controlled dimming ing power to one or more LEDs in use with either a zener of at least two LED groups and a switching circuit between diode or other voltage regulating device, but none of them use the two LED groups. In contrast, an embodiment of the the voltage regulators in combination with voltage reducing devices to work with multiple power sources as disclosed in present invention uses only one zener diode in parallel with a this speci?cation. The combination of both components single series string of LEDs. In addition, voltage reducing offers an improvement over the references and offers an LED devices are used to protect the electrical components and lamp device that can truly operate with multiple power LEDs from an overvoltage surge condition either from a sources. ballast during startup or from voltage transients during nor US. Pat. No. 4,211,955 issued to Ray on Jul. 8, 1980 mal operation of the LED lamp. discloses a Solid State Lamp containing a recti?er and voltage 20 US. Pat. No. 6,501,084 issued to Sakai et al. on Dec. 31, regulator circuit. One embodiment of the invention includes a 2002 discloses a UV lamp unit consisting of LEDs on a circuit half wave diode recti?er and regulating means in the form of board using a zener diode in parallel with a group of LED a resistor and a zener diode. His invention relies on the regu strings. However, it doesn't disclose voltage reducing devices lator circuit to protect against transients. In contrast, the to protect the electrical components and LEDs from an over present invention uses separate voltage reduction means to 25 voltage condition either from a ballast during startup or from protect the electrical elements and LEDs from an overvoltage voltage transients during normal operation. surge condition either from a ballast during startup or from US. Pat. No. 6,577,072 issued to Saito et al. on Jun. 10, voltage transients during normal operation of the LED lamp. 2003 discloses a power supply and LED lamp device that US. Pat. No. 4,460,863 issued to Conforti on Jul. 17, 1984 primarily uses an oscillator to drive the LEDs. When a zener discloses a battery charging circuit with a zener diode and one 30 diode is used, the zener voltage is higher than the total of the LED in series and uses a step-down transformer to drop the forward voltage drops of the LEDs connected in parallel with higher input VAC to a lower output VAC. The present inven the zener diode within a range of from 10% to 30% both tion does not use a transformer, because it is not needed. The inclusive. A ?rst embodiment of the present invention uses a entire input power is utilized and VAC or VDC is used to zener diode with a rated voltage less than 10% above the total provide power to the LEDs and other electrical components. 35 of the forward voltage drops of the series string of LEDs, US. Pat. No. 5,939,839 issued to Robel et al. onAug. 17, which is below the inclusive range of 10% to 30% as claimed 1999 discloses circuits for protecting LEDs for illumination by US. Pat. No. 6,577,072. or signaling purposes, and uses a PTC resistor in series with US. Pat. No. 6,590,343 issued to Pederson on Jul. 8, 2003 a zener diode and a plurality of LEDs. The use of a PTC will discloses a compensating circuit including a zener diode that cause all LEDs to turn off when there is an over-current 40 adjusts the electrical parameters for a plurality of LEDs for condition, and will turn all the LEDs back on after the over inclusion within standardized speci?cations for the electrical current condition is removed. This is not desirable in a lamp system of a light ?xture. Their invention further discloses a illumination system. The embodiments of the present inven controller and software for use with the compensating circuit. tion do not use PTC resistors and therefore allows the LEDs In contrast, there is no controller used in the embodiments of to remain on at all times as long as input power is present. In 45 the present invention. Input power is used to provide DC the speci?cation ofU.S. Pat. No. 5,939,839, the zener diode voltage to power the series string of LEDs using a constant together with the PTC resistor protects the LEDs against voltage zener diode or a high voltage regulator IC. positive over voltage. In an embodiment of the present inven US. Pat. No. 6,650,064 issued to Guthrie et al. on Nov. 18, tion, a high power current limiting resistor together with at 2003 discloses a zener diode connected in parallel with two or least one zener diode along with a varistor or similar voltage 50 more sets of series connected LEDs in a reverse forward bias reducing device connected at the source of input power pro orientation. In contrast, the embodiments of the present tects the LEDs against positive over voltage. invention use at least one zener diode with at least one series US. Pat. No. 6,150,771 issued to Perry on Nov. 21, 2000 string of LEDs. In addition, voltage reducing devices are used discloses an interface circuit for a traf?c signal with LEDs to to protect the electrical components and LEDs from an over replace incandescent bulbs. Their invention uses a sensing 55 voltage surge condition either from a ballast during startup or and switching circuit including con?ict monitors to provide a from voltage transients during normal operation of the LED power factor of substantially unity. In contrast, in one lamp. embodiment of the present invention, a purely resistive load is US. Pat. No. 7,157,859 issued to Inoue on Jan. 2, 2007 used to provide a linear current to a zener diode and the series discloses a lighting device and lighting system that use more string of LEDs load that induces no changes onto an incoming 60 than one zener diode each with a series resistor in parallel AC power line for a smoother transfer of power to the LEDs. with respective LEDs and each LED also having a series US. Pat. No. 6,203,180 issued to Fleischmann on Mar. 20, resistor. One embodiment of the present invention uses only 2001 discloses a power supply unit for a lighting arrangement one zener diode with one series string of LEDs. Lastly, volt that includes at least one LED connected in parallel or in age reducing devices are used to protect the electrical com series to the power supply unit with a zener diode connected 65 ponents and LEDs from an overvoltage surge condition either in parallel to each LED or to a group of LEDs. The lighting from a ballast during startup or from voltage transients during arrangement comprises a plurality of spot light sources each normal operation of the LED lamp. Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 13 of 23 PageID #:22 US 8,729,809 B2 5 6 US. Pat. No. 4,939,426 issued to Menard et al. on Jul. 3, A second embodiment of the present invention uses a high 1990; US. Pat. No. 5,552,678 issued to Tang et al. on Sep. 3, voltage regulator IC to set the voltage applied to a series string 1996; US. Pat. No. 5,914,501 issuedtoAntle et al. on Jun. 22, of LEDs. Such high voltage regulator ICs includes the family 1999; US. Pat. No. 6,461,019 issuedtoAllen onOct. 8, 2002; of TV hybrid voltage regulator ICs, DC-DC converters, buck US. Pat. No. 6,760,380 issued to Andersen on Jul. 6, 2004; converters, or similar voltage regulating devices. A smooth US. Pat. No. 7,015,650 issuedto McGrath on Mar. 21, 2006; ing capacitor is used at the input of the high voltage regulator US. Pat. No. 7,053,560 issued to Ng on May 30, 2006; US. IC, and a resistor bridge sets the base voltage to the high Pat. No. 7,489,086 issued to Miskin et al. on Feb. 10, 2009; voltage regulator IC. The output of the high voltage regulator US. Pat. No. 7,618,165 issued to Kamiya et al. on Nov. 17, IC is connected to an optional current limiting resistor in series with a string of LEDs. More than one high voltage 2009; and US. Patent Application Publication Number 2006/ regulator IC may be used. There may be one high voltage 0261362 published on Nov. 23, 2006 among others are pro regulator IC in parallel with one or more LEDs, or one or vided for reference. more series string of LEDs. This is done to maintain illumi nation from the LED lamp in case one or more LEDs should SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION fail. External power from a ballast, VAC, VDC, or electromag An LED lamp device is disclosed primarily for the replace netic induction power immediately passes from the bi-pins to ment of ?uorescent lamps. The LED lamp contains circuitry an AC-to-DC converter. The VDC power enters the high to allow it to be used with multiple power sources providing voltage regulator IC. The regulated VDC is ?ltered through a versatility to the end user, and reducing material and inven 20 capacitor and a bleeder resistor, and passes through the tory costs. The LED lamp terminates primarily in G13 bi-pins optional current limiting resistor and series string of LEDs. on opposing end caps. However, other pin terminating lamp The high voltage regulator IC sets the voltage and current bases will be possible to mate with the different types of going to the series string of LEDs. The regulated high voltage ?uorescent tube lampholders. The LED lamp mates with the DC is distributed evenly over each LED in the series string of existing lampholders on a new or existing ?uorescent ?xture. 25 LEDs. The body of the LED lamp is tubular, with the LEDs and other Since the LED lamp is non-polarized, it can be installed electrical components positioned within the LED lamp hous without any direction or speci?c position to the mating lam ing that are in electrical communications with the bi-pins. The pholders. To accomplish this, an optional and identical AC-to bi-pins ultimately transfer power from the multiple input DC converter, and optional ?lter capacitor and bleeder resis power sources to the LEDs. 30 tor is included at the opposite end of the LED lamp with the Although the patent is primarily for an LED ?uorescent positive and negative outputs of both AC-to-DC converters replacement lamp, the same circuitry can be used for other tied together respectively within the LED lamp. types of LED replacement lamps as well. These include LED A varistor or similar voltage reducing device that is posi lamp devices to replace tungsten ?lament, halogen, incandes tioned across the bi-pins of the LED lamp is strongly recom cent, HID, metal halide, ceramic discharge lamps, etc. in 35 mended. The varistor will protect the LED lamp electronics various lamp packages and housings. from voltage surges during ballast startup and from voltage A ?rst embodiment of the present invention uses a voltage transients during normal operation of the LED lamp. regulating zener diode to set the voltage applied to a series A third embodiment of the present invention uses back-to string of LEDs. This shunt regulator can include a zener back voltage regulating zener diodes to set the voltage applied diode, avalanche breakdown diode, or a TVS or transient 40 to a series string of paired sets of diodes each connected in an voltage suppressor. A high power current limiting resistor is anti-parallel con?guration, or to a pair of diode strings con connected in series with the zener diode. The zener diode is nected in an anti-parallel con?guration. This clamp or clipper connected in parallel with the series string of LEDs. More regulator can include two zener diodes, two avalanche break than one zener diode may be used. There may be one zener down diodes, or two TVS or transient voltage suppressors. A diode in parallel with one or more LEDs, or one or more series 45 high power current limiting resistor is connected in series string of LEDs. This is done to maintain illumination from the with the back-to-back zener diodes. The back-to-back zener LED lamp in case one or more LEDs should fail. diodes are connected in parallel with the series string of External power from a ballast, VAC, VDC, or electromag anti-parallel diode pairs or anti-parallel pair of diode strings. netic induction power immediately passes from the bi-pins to Each series string of anti-parallel diode pairs or anti-parallel an AC-to-DC converter. The VDC power is ?ltered through a 50 pair of diode strings may contain a current limiting resistor. capacitor and a bleeder resistor. The VDC power then passes More than one pair of back-to -back zener diodes may be used. through the high power current limiting resistor and zener There may be one pair of back-to-back zener diodes in par diode that subsequently sets the voltage and current going to allel with one or more anti-parallel diode pairs, or one or more the series string of LEDs. The zener voltage is distributed series strings of anti-parallel diode pairs. One diode in each evenly over each LED in the series string of LEDs. 55 pair or one diode in each string can be an LED, or both diodes Since the LED lamp is non-polarized, it can be installed in each anti-parallel diode pair or each anti-parallel diode without any direction or speci?c position to the mating lam string pair can be LEDs. This con?guration maintains illumi pholders. To accomplish this, an optional and identical AC-to nation from the LED lamp in case one or more LEDs should DC converter, ?lter capacitor, and bleeder resistor is included fail. at the opposite end of the LED lamp with the positive and 60 External power from a ballast, VAC, VDC, or electromag negative outputs of both AC-to-DC converters tied together netic induction power immediately passes from the bi-pins to respectively within the LED lamp. an optional DC-to-AC converter or an inverter. The DC-to A varistor or similar voltage reducing device that is posi AC converter or an inverter is optional since both VAC and tioned across the bi-pins of the LED lamp is strongly recom VDC will still pass onto the anti-parallel diode pairs or anti mended. The varistor will protect the LED lamp electronics 65 parallel diode string pairs. The VAC power then passes from voltage surges during ballast startup and from voltage through the high power current limiting resistor and the back transients during normal operation of the LED lamp. to-back zener diodes that subsequently set the voltage and Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 14 of 23 PageID #:23 US 8,729,809 B2 7 8 current going to the series string of anti-parallel diode pairs or It is yet another object of the invention to provide circuitry anti-parallel diode string pairs. The total back-to-back zener and electrical components for a versatile LED lamp device voltage is distributed evenly over each diode or LED in the that can be used with multiple sources of input power. anti-parallel diode pairs in the series string of anti-parallel While the novel features of the invention are set forth diode pairs, or over each diode or LED in the anti-parallel particularly in the appended claims, the invention, both as to diode strings. organization and content, will be better understood and Since the LED lamp is non-polarized, it can be installed appreciated along with other objects and features thereof, without any direction or speci?c position to the mating lam from the following detailed description taken in conjunction pholders. To accomplish this, an optional and identical DC with the drawings. to-AC converter or inverter is included at the opposite end of the LED lamp with the positive and negative inputs of both BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS DC-to-AC converters or inverters tied together respectively FIG. 1 shows a ?rst embodiment of the present invention within the LED lamp. DC power and AC power will still pass using a single resistor and zener diode as the main voltage to the anti-parallel diode pairs or anti-parallel diode string regulating device in parallel with at least one LED. pairs without the DC-to-AC converter or inverter in place. FIG. 2 shows a second embodiment of the present inven A varistor or similar voltage reducing device that is posi tion using a high voltage regulator IC as the main voltage tioned across the bi-pins of the LED lamp is strongly recom regulating device in parallel with at least one LED. mended. The varistor will protect the LED lamp electronics FIG. 3 shows an alternate embodiment of the present from voltage surges during ballast startup and from voltage 20 invention shown in FIG. 1 using more than one zener diode transients during normal operation of the LED lamp. each in parallel with at least one LED. A fourth embodiment of the present invention uses back FIG. 4 shows an alternate embodiment of the present to-back voltage regulating zener diodes to set the voltage invention shown in FIG. 2 using more than one high voltage applied to at least one packaged AC LED PCB connected in regulator IC each in parallel with at least one LED. parallel. This clamp or clipper regulator can include two zener 25 FIG. 5 shows a third embodiment of the present invention diodes, two avalanche breakdown diodes, or two TVS or using a single resistor and back-to-back zener diodes as the transient voltage suppressors. A high power current limiting main voltage regulating device in parallel with at least one resistor is connected in series with the back-to-back zener pair of diodes connected in anti-parallel in series with a resis diodes. The back-to-back zener diodes are connected in par tor. allel with at least one packaged AC LED PCB. The packaged 30 FIG. 6 shows an alternate embodiment of the present AC LED PCB may contain a current limiting resistor. More invention shown in FIG. 5 using more than one pair of back than one pair of back-to-back zener diodes may be used. to-back zener diodes each in parallel with at least one pair of There may be one pair of back-to-back zener diodes in par diodes connected in anti-parallel each in series with a resistor. allel with one or more packaged AC LED PCBs. This is done FIG. 7 shows another alternate embodiment of the present to maintain illumination from the LED lamp in case one or 35 invention shown in FIG. 5 using a single resistor and back more packaged AC LED PCBs should fail. to-back zener diodes in parallel with at least one serial string External power from a ballast, VAC, VDC, or electromag of diode pairs connected in anti-parallel such that any one of netic induction power immediately passes from the bi-pins to the two serial string of diodes can conduct in opposite elec an optional DC-to-AC converter or an inverter. The DC-to trical directions. AC converter or an inverter is optional since both VAC and 40 FIG. 8 shows a fourth embodiment of the present invention VDC will still pass onto the packaged AC LED PCBs. The using a single resistor and back-to-back zener diodes as the VAC power then passes through the high power current lim main voltage regulating device in parallel with at least one iting resistor and the back-to-back zener diodes that subse packaged AC LED PCB consisting of at least one AC LED quently set the voltage and current going to the packaged AC emitter each in series with a resistor. LED PCBs. The back-to-back zener voltage is the same over 45 The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and each packaged AC LED PCB. technical advantages of the present invention, so that those Since the LED lamp is non-polarized, it can be installed skilled in the art may better understand the detailed descrip without any direction or speci?c position to the mating lam tion of the invention that follows. Additional features and pholders. To accomplish this, an optional and identical DC advantages of the invention will be described hereinafter that to-AC converter or inverter is included at the opposite end of 50 form the subject of the claims of the invention. Those skilled the LED lamp with the positive and negative inputs of both in the art will appreciate that they may readily use the con DC-to-AC converters or inverters tied together respectively ception and the speci?c embodiment disclosed as a basis for within the LED lamp. DC power and AC power will still pass modifying or designing other structures for carrying out the to the anti-parallel diode pairs without the DC-to-AC con same purposes of the present invention. Those skilled in the verter or inverter in place. 55 art will also realize that such equivalent constructions do not A varistor or similar voltage reducing device that is posi depart from the spirit and scope of the invention in its broadest tioned across the bi-pins of the LED lamp is strongly recom form. mended. The varistor will protect the LED lamp electronics from voltage surges during ballast startup and from voltage DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED transients during normal operation of the LED lamp. 60 EMBODIMENTS OBJECT OF THE INVENTION Although the present invention has been described in terms of the presently preferred embodiments, it is to be understood It is an object of the present invention to minimize inven that such disclosure is not to be interpreted as limiting. Vari tory costs. 65 ous alterations and modi?cations will no doubt become It is another object of the present invention to minimize apparent to those skilled in the art after having read the above electrical components to reduce overall material cost. disclosure. Accordingly, it is intended that the appended Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 15 of 23 PageID #:24 US 8,729,809 B2 10 claims be interpreted as covering all alterations and modi? converters 20. The negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 20 cations as fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention. are connected together to DC ground. Voltage reducing FIGS. 1 to 8, discussed below and the various embodi devices 50 may be connected to the bi-pins 15 of LED lamp ments used to describe the principles of the present invention 10. in this patent document are by way of illustration only and When DC power is connected to one or both ends of LED should not be construed in any way to limit the scope of the lamp 10 by way of bi-pins 15, the DC power is transferred to invention. Those skilled in the art will understand that the AC-to-DC converters 20. DC voltage from AC-to-DC con principles of the present invention may be implemented in verters 20 is ?ltered by capacitors 25 and bleeder resistors 30. any suitably arranged device. DC voltage fromAC-to-DC converters 20 is also connected to FIG. 1 shows a ?rst embodiment of the present invention one side of high power current limiting resistor 35. The other using a high power current limiting resistor 35 and a zener side of resistor 35 is connected in series to the cathode side of diode 40 as the main voltage regulating device to provide zener diode 40 and to the anode side of the ?rst LED 45A in power to a series string of LEDs 45. LED lamp 10 is shown the series string of LEDs 45. The cathode side of last LED with bi-pins 15 on opposite ends of LED lamp 10. On both 45B and the anode side of zener diode 40 are connected to the ends, bi-pins 15 are connected to the AC sides of AC-to-DC negative sides ofAC-to-DC converters 20. The negative sides converters 20. The positive sides of AC-to-DC converters 20 of AC-to-DC converters 20 are connected together to DC are connected together. The positive sides are also ?ltered ground. Voltage reducing devices 50 may be connected to the through capacitors 25 and bleeder resistors 30, and then bi-pins 15 of LED lamp 10. passes through high power current limiting resistor 35 con Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is nected in series with zener diode 40 and series string of LEDs 20 the process that takes place in any system where electrical 45. Voltage reducing devices 50 may be connected to the energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load bi-pins 15 of LED lamp 10. without interconnecting wires. When power is transmitted by The actual AC-to-DC converter 20 used is a full-wave an inductive transmitter (not shown) located by the mating bridge recti?er. The bridge recti?er circuit can consist of four lampholders (not shown) to an inductive receiver or antenna separate silicon diodes or one bridge component. This bridge 25 (not shown) located in LED lamp 10, the electromagnetic recti?er results in a rippled DC current and therefore serves as induction power is transferred to AC-to-DC converters 20. an example circuit only. A different recti?cation scheme may DC voltage from AC-to-DC converters 20 is ?ltered by be employed, depending on cost considerations. For example, capacitors 25 and bleeder resistors 30. DC voltage from AC more capacitors or inductors and resistors may be added to to-DC converters 20 is also connected to one side of high further reduce ripple at a minor cost increase. A larger ?lter 30 power current limiting resistor 35. The other side of resistor capacitor helps ?lter out the AC from the DC source. Because 35 is connected in series to the cathode side of zener diode 40 of the many possibilities and because of their insigni?cance, and to the anode side of the ?rst LED 45A in the series string these and similar additional circuit features have been pur of LEDs 45. The cathode side of last LED 45B and the anode posely omitted from FIG. 1. The actual voltage reducing side of zener diode 40 are connected to the negative sides of device 50 used is a varistor. A varistor or similar fusing device 35 AC-to-DC converters 20. The negative sides of AC-to-DC may be used to ensure that voltage is limited during power converters 20 are connected together to DC ground. In this surges. The actual zener diode 40 can also be an avalanche manner, LED lamp 10 is powered without a direct electrical breakdown diode or a voltage regulator tube. Although input connection. Voltage reducing devices 50 may be connected to power at bi-pins 15 of LED lamp 10 are recti?ed by AC-to the bi-pins 15 of LED lamp 10. DC converters 20, it will be noted that the LED lamp 10 will 40 Exemplary values for the relevant electrical components still operate with input power at only one end or across any depicted in FIG. 1 are: AC-to-DC converters 20:1 ampere two pins on bi-pins 15. diodes each rated 600 volts; capacitors 25:10 uF; resistors When ballast power is connected to one or both ends of 30:1 mega ohm; resistor 35:300 ohms; zener diode 40:120 LED lamp 10 by way of bi-pins 15, the ballast power is volts; and LEDs 45, 45A-45B each LED having forward transferred to AC-to-DC converters 20. DC voltage from AC 45 voltage drops in the range 3.1-3.6 VDC. to-DC converters 20 is ?ltered by capacitors 25 and bleeder FIG. 2 shows a second embodiment of the present inven resistors 30. DC voltage from AC-to-DC converters 20 is also tion using a high voltage regulator IC 75 as the main voltage connected to one side of high power current limiting resistor regulating device to provide power to a series string of LEDs 35. The other side of resistor 35 is connected in series to the 125. LED lamp 60 is shown with bi-pins 65 on opposite ends cathode side of zener diode 40 and to the anode side of the ?rst 50 of LED lamp 60. On both ends, bi-pins 65 are connected to the LED 45A in the series string of LEDs 45. The cathode side of AC sides of AC-to-DC converters 70. The positive sides of last LED 45B and the anode side of zener diode 40 are AC-to-DC converters 70 are connected together. The positive connected to the negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 20. sides of AC-to-DC converters 70 are also connected to a The negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 20 are connected smoothing capacitor 80 and then to a resistor bridge consist together to DC ground. Voltage reducing devices 50 may be 55 ing of resistor 85 and resistor 90. The positive sides of AC-to connected to the bi-pins 15 of LED lamp 10. DC converters 70 connect to one side of resistor 85 and to the When line voltage AC power is connected to one or both input voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 75. The other ends of LED lamp 10 by way of bi-pins 15, the line voltage side of resistor 85 is connected to one side of resistor 90 to AC power is transferred to AC-to-DC converters 20. DC base pin 100 of high voltage regulator IC 75 and to one side of voltage from AC-to-DC converters 20 is ?ltered by capacitors 60 capacitor 95. The other side of capacitor 95 connects to the 25 and bleeder resistors 30. DC voltage from AC-to-DC con negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 70 and to ground pin verters 20 is also connected to one side of high power current 105 of high voltage regulator IC 75. The output voltage side limiting resistor 35. The other side of resistor 35 is connected of high voltage regulator IC 75 is ?ltered through capacitor in series to the cathode side of zener diode 40 and to the anode 110 and bleeder resistor 115, and then passes through side of the ?rst LED 45A in the series string of LEDs 45. The 65 optional current limiting resistor 120 connected to series cathode side of last LED 45B and the anode side of zener string of LEDs 125. Voltage reducing devices 130 may be diode 40 are connected to the negative sides of AC-to-DC connected to the bi-pins 65 of LED lamp 60. Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 16 of 23 PageID #:25 US 8,729,809 B2 11 12 The actual AC-to-DC converter 70 used is a full-wave the negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 70 to DC ground. bridge recti?er. The bridge recti?er circuit can consist of four Voltage reducing devices 130 may be connected to the bi-pins separate silicon diodes or one bridge component. This bridge 65 of LED lamp 60. recti?er results in a rippled DC current and therefore serves as When DC power is connected to one or both ends of LED an example circuit only. A different recti?cation scheme may lamp 60 by way of bi-pins 65, the DC power is transferred to be employed, depending on cost considerations. For example, AC-to-DC converters 70. DC voltage from AC-to-DC con more capacitors or inductors and resistors may be added to verters 70 is then connected to a smoothing capacitor 80 and further reduce ripple at a minor cost increase. A larger ?lter then to a resistor bridge consisting of resistor 85 and resistor capacitor helps ?lter out the AC from the DC source. Because 90. The positive sides of AC-to-DC converters 70 connect to one side of resistor 85 and to the input voltage side of high of the many possibilities and because of their insigni?cance, voltage regulator IC 75. The other side of resistor 85 is con these and similar additional circuit features have been pur nected to one side of resistor 90 to base pin 100 of high posely omitted from FIG. 2. The actual voltage reducing voltage regulator IC 75 and to one side of capacitor 95. The device 130 used is a varistor. A varistor or similar fusing other side of capacitor 95 and the other side of resistor 90 device may be used to ensure that voltage is limited during connect to the negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 70 and power surges. The actual high voltage regulator IC 75 used is to ground pin 105 of high voltage regulator IC 75. The output a TV hybrid voltage regulator lC, DC-DC converter, buck voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 75 is ?ltered through converter, or similar high voltage DC voltage regulating capacitor 110 and bleeder resistor 115 to DC ground. DC device. Although input power at bi-pins 65 of LED lamp 60 voltage from the output voltage side of high voltage regulator are recti?ed by AC-to-DC converters 70, it will be noted that 20 IC 75 is also connected to one side of optional current limiting the LED lamp 60 will still operate with input power at only resistor 120. The other side of optional current limiting resis one end or across any two pins on bi-pins 65. tor 120 is connected in series to the anode side of the ?rst LED When ballast power is connected to one or both ends of 125A in the series string of LEDs 125. The cathode side of last LED lamp 60 by way of bi-pins 65, the ballast power is LED 125B is connected to the negative sides of AC-to-DC transferred to AC-to-DC converters 70. DC voltage from AC 25 converters 70 to DC ground. Voltage reducing devices 130 to-DC converters 70 is then connected to a smoothing capaci may be connected to the bi-pins 65 of LED lamp 60. tor 80 and then to a resistor bridge consisting of resistor 85 Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is and resistor 90. The positive sides ofAC-to-DC converters 70 the process that takes place in any system where electrical connect to one side of resistor 85 and to the input voltage side energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load of high voltage regulator IC 75. The other side of resistor 85 30 without interconnecting wires. When power is transmitted by is connected to one side ofresistor 90 to base pin 100 ofhigh an inductive transmitter (not shown) located by the mating voltage regulator IC 75 and to one side of capacitor 95. The lampholders (not shown) to an inductive receiver or antenna other side of capacitor 95 and the other side of resistor 90 (not shown) located in LED lamp 10, the electromagnetic induction power is transferred to AC-to-DC converters 70. connect to the negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 70 and 35 DC voltage from AC-to-DC converters 70 is then connected to ground pin 105 of high voltage regulator IC 75. The output to a smoothing capacitor 80 and then to a resistor bridge voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 75 is ?ltered through consisting of resistor 85 and resistor 90. The positive sides of capacitor 110 and bleeder resistor 115 to DC ground. DC AC-to-DC converters 70 connect to one side of resistor 85 and voltage from the output voltage side of high voltage regulator to the input voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 75. The IC 75 is also connected to one side of optional current limiting 40 other side of resistor 85 is connected to one side of resistor 90 resistor 120. The other side of optional current limiting resis to base pin 100 of high voltage regulator IC 75 and to one side tor 120 is connected in series to the anode side of the ?rst LED of capacitor 95. The other side of capacitor 95 and the other 125A in the series string of LEDs 125. The cathode side of last side of resistor 90 connect to the negative sides of AC-to-DC LED 125B is connected to the negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 70 and to ground pin 105 of high voltage regulator converters 70 to DC ground. Voltage reducing devices 130 45 IC 75. The output voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 75 may be connected to the bi-pins 65 of LED lamp 60. is then ?ltered through capacitor 110 and bleeder resistor 115 When line voltage AC power is connected to one or both to DC ground. DC voltage from the output voltage side of ends of LED lamp 60 by way of bi-pins 65, the line voltage high voltage regulator IC 75 is also connected to one side of AC power is transferred to AC-to-DC converters 70. DC optional current limiting resistor 120. The other side of voltage from AC-to-DC converters 70 is then connected to a 50 optional current limiting resistor 120 is connected in series to smoothing capacitor 80 and then to a resistor bridge consist the anode side of the ?rst LED 125A in the series string of ing of resistor 85 and resistor 90. The positive sides of AC-to LEDs 125. The cathode side of last LED 125B is connected to DC converters 70 connect to one side of resistor 85 and to the the negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 70 to DC ground. input voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 75. The other Voltage reducing devices 130 may be connected to the bi-pins side of resistor 85 is connected to one side of resistor 90 to 55 65 of LED lamp 60. base pin 100 of high voltage regulator IC 75 and to one side of Exemplary values for the relevant electrical components capacitor 95. The other side of capacitor 95 and the other side depicted in FIG. 2 are: AC-to-DC converters 70:1 ampere of resistor 90 connect to the negative sides of AC-to-DC diodes each rated 600 volts; capacitors 110:10 uF; resistors converters 70 and to ground pin 105 of high voltage regulator 115:1 mega ohm; LEDs 125, 125A-125B each LED having IC 75. The output voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 75 60 forward voltage drops in the range 3. l -3 .6 VDC; high voltage is ?ltered through capacitor 110 and bleeder resistor 115 to regulator IC 75 is an NTE1796 or equivalent lC with a ?xed DC ground. DC voltage from the output voltage side of high output at 114.5 volts; capacitor 80:220 uF; resistor 85:10 voltage regulator IC 75 is also connected to one side of kilo ohms; resistor 90:180 kilo ohms; and capacitor 95:100 optional current limiting resistor 120. The other side of uF. optional current limiting resistor 120 is connected in series to 65 FIG. 3 shows an alternate embodiment of the present the anode side of the ?rst LED 125A in the series string of invention shown in FIG. 1 using a high power current limiting LEDs 125. The cathode side of last LED 125B is connected to resistor 165 and a zener diode 170A and zener diode 1708 as Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 17 of 23 PageID #:26 US 8,729,809 B2 13 14 the main voltage regulating device to provide power to a the anode side of zener diode 170A are connected in series to series string of LEDs 175. Now, two separate circuits are the cathode side of zener diode 170B and to the anode side of shown with same resistor 165 and a zener diode 170A in the ?rst LED 175C in the second series string of LEDs 175. series with zener diode 170B each in parallel with and pow The cathode side of last LED 175D and the anode side of ering a separate series string of LEDs 175. A separate resistor zener diode 170B are connected to the negative sides of (not shown) may be used for the second circuit. The two AC-to-DC converters 150. The negative sides of AC-to-DC separate circuits allow at least one series string of LEDs 175 converters 150 are connected together to DC ground. Voltage to remain lit in the event one of the two circuits should fail. reducing devices 180 may be connected to the bi-pins 145 of LED lamp 140 is shown with bi-pins 145 on opposite ends of LED lamp 140. LED lamp 140. On both ends, bi-pins 145 are connected to the When DC power is connected to one or both ends of LED AC sides of AC-to-DC converters 150. The positive sides of lamp 140 by way of bi-pins 145, the DC power is transferred AC-to-DC converters 150 are connected together. The posi to AC-to-DC converters 150. DC voltage from AC-to-DC tive sides are also ?ltered through capacitors 155 and bleeder converters 150 is ?ltered by capacitors 155 and bleeder resis resistors 160, and then passes through resistor 165 connected tors 160. DC voltage from AC-to-DC converters 150 is also in series with zener diode 170A and parallel with a string of connected to one side of high power current limiting resistor LEDs 175, and then in series with zener diode 170B and 165. The other side of resistor 165 is connected in series to the parallel with a string of LEDs 175. Voltage reducing devices cathode side of zener diode 170A and to the anode side of the 180 may be connected to the bi-pins 145 of LED lamp 140. ?rst LED 175A in the ?rst series string of LEDs 175. The The actual AC-to-DC converter 150 used is a full-wave cathode side of last LED 175B and the anode side of zener bridge recti?er. The bridge recti?er circuit can consist of four 20 diode 170A are connected in series to the cathode side of separate silicon diodes or one bridge component. This bridge zener diode 170B and to the anode side of the ?rst LED 175C recti?er results in a rippled DC current and therefore serves as in the second series string of LEDs 175. The cathode side of an example circuit only. A different recti?cation scheme may last LED 175D and the anode side of zener diode 170B are be employed, depending on cost considerations. For example, connected to the negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 150. more capacitors or inductors and resistors may be added to 25 The negative sides ofAC-to-DC converters 150 are connected further reduce ripple at a minor cost increase. A larger ?lter together to DC ground. Voltage reducing devices 180 may be capacitor helps ?lter out the AC from the DC source. Because connected to the bi-pins 145 of LED lamp 140. of the many possibilities and because of their insigni?cance, Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is these and similar additional circuit features have been pur the process that takes place in any system where electrical posely omitted from FIG. 3. The actual voltage reducing 30 energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load device 180 used is a varistor. A varistor or similar fusing without interconnecting wires. When power is transmitted by device may be used to ensure that voltage is limited during an inductive transmitter (not shown) located by the mating power surges. The actual zener diodes 170A and 170B can lampholders (not shown) to an inductive receiver or antenna also be an avalanche breakdown diode or a voltage regulator (not shown) located in LED lamp 140, the electromagnetic tube. Although input power at bi-pins 145 of LED lamp 140 35 induction power is transferred to AC-to-DC converters 150. are recti?ed by AC-to-DC converters 150, it will be noted that DC voltage from AC-to-DC converters 150 is ?ltered by the LED lamp 140 will still operate with input power at only capacitors 155 and bleeder resistors 160. DC voltage from one end or across any two pins on bi-pins 145. AC-to-DC converters 150 is also connected to one side of When ballast power is connected to one or both ends of high power current limiting resistor 165. The other side of LED lamp 140 by way of bi-pins 145, the ballast power is 40 resistor 165 is connected in series to the cathode side of zener transferred to AC-to-DC converters 150. DC voltage from diode 170A and to the anode side of the ?rst LED 175A in the AC-to-DC converters 150 is ?ltered by capacitors 155 and ?rst series string of LEDs 175. The cathode side of last LED bleeder resistors 160. DC voltage from AC-to-DC converters 175B and the anode side of zener diode 170A are connected 150 is also connected to one side of high power current in series to the cathode side of zener diode 170B and to the limiting resistor 165. The other side of resistor 165 is con 45 anode side of the ?rst LED 175C in the second series string of nected in series to the cathode side of zener diode 170A and LEDs 175. The cathode side of last LED 175D and the anode to the anode side of the ?rst LED 175A in the ?rst series string side of zener diode 170B are connected to the negative sides of LEDs 175. The cathode side of last LED 175B and the ofAC-to-DC converters 150. The negative sides ofAC-to-DC anode side of zener diode 170A are connected in series to the converters 150 are connected together to DC ground. In this cathode side of zener diode 170B and to the anode side of the 50 manner, LED lamp 140 is powered without a direct electrical ?rst LED 175C in the second series string of LEDs 175. The connection. Voltage reducing devices 180 may be connected cathode side of last LED 175D and the anode side of zener to the bi-pins 145 of LED lamp 140. diode 170B are connected to the negative sides of AC-to-DC Exemplary values for the relevant electrical components converters 150. The negative sides of AC-to-DC converters depicted in FIG. 3 are: AC-to-DC converters 150:1 ampere 150 are connected together to DC ground. Voltage reducing 55 diodes rated 600 volts; capacitors 155:10 uF; resistors 160:1 devices 180 may be connected to the bi-pins 145 of LED lamp mega ohm; resistor 165:300 ohms; zener diodes 170A, 140. 170B:60 volts; and LEDs 175, 175A, 175B, 175C, and 175D When line voltage AC power is connected to one or both each LED having forward voltage drops in the range 3.1-3.6 ends of LED lamp 140 by way of bi-pins 145, the line voltage VDC. AC power is transferred to AC-to-DC converters 150. DC 60 FIG. 4 shows an alternate embodiment of the present voltage from AC-to-DC converters 150 is ?ltered by capaci invention shown in FIG. 2 using a high voltage regulator IC tors 155 and bleeder resistors 160. DC voltage from AC-to 205 as the main voltage regulating device to provide power to DC converters 150 is also connected to one side of high power a series string of LEDs 255. Now, two separate circuits are current limiting resistor 165. The other side of resistor 165 is shown each with a separate high voltage regulator IC 205 connected in series to the cathode side of zener diode 170A 65 each to power a separate series string of LEDs 255. The two and to the anode side of the ?rst LED 175A in the ?rst series separate circuits allow at least one series string of LEDs 255 string of LEDs 175. The cathode side of last LED 175B and to remain lit in the event one of the two circuits should fail. Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 18 of 23 PageID #:27 US 8,729,809 B2 15 16 LED lamp 190 is shown with bi-pins 195 on opposite ends of When line voltage AC power is connected to one or both LED lamp 190. On both ends, bi-pins 195 are connected to the ends of LED lamp 190 by way of bi-pins 195, the line voltage AC sides of AC-to-DC converters 200. The positive sides of AC power is transferred to AC-to-DC converters 200. DC AC-to-DC converters 200 are connected together. The posi voltage from AC-to-DC converters 200 is then connected to a tive sides of AC-to-DC converters 200 are also connected to a smoothing capacitor 210 and then to a resistor bridge consist smoothing capacitor 210 and then to a resistor bridge consist ing of resistor 215 and resistor 220. The positive sides of ing of resistor 215 and resistor 220. The positive sides of AC-to-DC converters 200 connect to one side of resistor 215 AC-to-DC converters 200 connect to one side of resistor 215 and to the input voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 205. and to the input voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 205. The other side of resistor 215 is connected to one side of The other side of resistor 215 is connected to one side of resistor 220 to base pin 230 of high voltage regulator IC 205 and to one side of capacitor 225. The other side of capacitor resistor 220 to base pin 230 of high voltage regulator IC 205 225 and the other side of resistor 220 connect to the negative and to one side of capacitor 225. The other side of capacitor sides of AC-to-DC converters 200 and to ground pin 235 of 225 connects to the negative sides of AC-to-DC converters high voltage regulator IC 205. The output voltage side of high 200 and to ground pin 235 of high voltage regulator IC 205. voltage regulator IC 205 is ?ltered through capacitor 240 and The output voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 205 is bleeder resistor 245 to DC ground. DC voltage from the ?ltered through capacitor 240 and bleeder resistor 245, and output voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 205 is also then passes through optional current limiting resistor 250 connected to one side of optional current limiting resistor connected to series string of LEDs 255. Voltage reducing 250. The other side of optional current limiting resistor 250 is devices 260 may be connected to the bi-pins 195 of LED lamp 20 connected in series to the anode side of the ?rst LED 255A in 190. each series string of LEDs 255. The cathode side of last LED The actual AC-to-DC converter 200 used is a full-wave 255B in each series string of LEDs 255 is connected to the bridge recti?er. The bridge recti?er circuit can consist of four negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 200 to DC ground. separate silicon diodes or one bridge component. This bridge Voltage reducing devices 260 may be connected to the bi-pins recti?er results in a rippled DC current and therefore serves as 25 195 of LED lamp 190. an example circuit only. A different recti?cation scheme may When DC power is connected to one or both ends of LED be employed, depending on cost considerations. For example, lamp 190 by way of bi-pins 195, the DC power is transferred more capacitors or inductors and resistors may be added to to AC-to-DC converters 200. DC voltage from AC-to-DC further reduce ripple at a minor cost increase. A larger ?lter converters 200 is then connected to a smoothing capacitor capacitor helps ?lter out the AC from the DC source. Because 30 210 and then to a resistor bridge consisting of resistor 215 and of the many possibilities and because of their insigni?cance, resistor 220. The positive sides of AC-to-DC converters 200 these and similar additional circuit features have been pur connect to one side of resistor 215 and to the input voltage posely omitted from FIG. 4. The actual voltage reducing side of high voltage regulator IC 205. The other side of device 260 used is a varistor. A varistor or similar fusing resistor 215 is connected to one side of resistor 220 to base pin device may be used to ensure that voltage is limited during 35 230 of high voltage regulator IC 205 and to one side of power surges. The actual high voltage regulator IC 205 used capacitor 225. The other side of capacitor 225 and the other is a TV hybrid voltage regulator lC, DC-DC converter, buck side of resistor 220 connect to the negative sides ofAC-to-DC converter, or similar high voltage DC voltage regulating converters 200 and to ground pin 235 of high voltage regula device. Although input power at bi-pins 195 of LED lamp 190 tor IC 205. The output voltage side of high voltage regulator are recti?ed by AC-to-DC converters 200, it will be noted that 40 IC 205 is ?ltered through capacitor 240 and bleeder resistor the LED lamp 190 will still operate with input power at only 245 to DC ground. DC voltage from the output voltage side of one end or across any two pins on bi-pins 195. high voltage regulator IC 205 is also connected to one side of When ballast power is connected to one or both ends of optional current limiting resistor 250. The other side of LED lamp 190 by way of bi-pins 195, the ballast power is optional current limiting resistor 250 is connected in series to transferred to AC-to-DC converters 200. DC voltage from 45 the anode side of the ?rst LED 255A in each series string of AC-to-DC converters 200 is then connected to a smoothing LEDs 255. The cathode side of last LED 255B in each series capacitor 210 and then to a resistor bridge consisting of resis string of LEDs 255 is connected to the negative sides of tor 215 and resistor 220. The positive sides of AC-to-DC AC-to-DC converters 200 to DC ground. Voltage reducing converters 200 connect to one side of resistor 215 and to the devices 260 may be connected to the bi-pins 195 of LED lamp input voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 205. The other 50 190. side of resistor 215 is connected to one side of resistor 220 to Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is base pin 230 of high voltage regulator IC 205 and to one side the process that takes place in any system where electrical of capacitor 225. The other side of capacitor 225 and the other energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load side of resistor 220 connect to the negative sides ofAC-to-DC without interconnecting wires. When power is transmitted by converters 200 and to ground pin 235 of high voltage regula 55 an inductive transmitter (not shown) located by the mating tor IC 205. The output voltage side of high voltage regulator lampholders (not shown) to an inductive receiver or antenna IC 205 is ?ltered through capacitor 240 and bleeder resistor (not shown) located in LED lamp 190, the electromagnetic 245 to DC ground. DC voltage from the output voltage side of induction power is transferred to AC-to-DC converters 200. high voltage regulator IC 205 is also connected to one side of DC voltage from AC-to-DC converters 200 is then connected optional current limiting resistor 250. The other side of 60 to a smoothing capacitor 210 and then to a resistor bridge optional current limiting resistor 250 is connected in series to consisting of resistor 215 and resistor 220. The positive sides the anode side of the ?rst LED 255A in each series string of of AC-to-DC converters 200 connect to one side of resistor LEDs 255. The cathode side of last LED 255B in each series 215 and to the input voltage side of high voltage regulator IC string of LEDs 255 is connected to the negative sides of 205. The other side of resistor 215 is connected to one side of AC-to-DC converters 200 to DC ground. Voltage reducing 65 resistor 220 to base pin 230 of high voltage regulator IC 205 devices 260 may be connected to the bi-pins 195 of LED lamp and to one side of capacitor 225. The other side of capacitor 190. 225 and the other side of resistor 220 connect to the negative Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 19 of 23 PageID #:28 US 8,729,809 B2 17 18 sides ofAC-to-DC converters 200 and to ground pin 235 of other side of resistor 280 is connected in series to the cathode high voltage regulator IC 205. The output voltage side of high side of one side of the back-to-back zener diodes 285 and to voltage regulator IC 205 is then ?ltered through capacitor 240 the ?rst anti-parallel LED pair 290A in the series string of and bleeder resistor 245 to DC ground. DC voltage from the anti-parallel LED pairs 290. The last anti-parallel LED pair output voltage side of high voltage regulator IC 205 is also 290B is then connected to one side of resistor 295. The other connected to one side of optional current limiting resistor side of resistor 295 and the cathode side of the other side of 250. The other side of optional current limiting resistor 250 is back-to-back zener diodes 285 are connected back to bi-pins connected in series to the anode side of the ?rst LED 255A in 275. Voltage reducing devices 300 may be connected to the each series string of LEDs 255. The cathode side of last LED bi-pins 275 of LED lamp 270. 255B in each series string of LEDs 255 is connected to the Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is negative sides of AC-to-DC converters 200 to DC ground. the process that takes place in any system where electrical Voltage reducing devices 260 may be connected to the bi-pins energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load 195 of LED lamp 190. Exemplary values for the relevant electrical components without interconnecting wires. When power is transmitted by depicted in FIG. 4 are: AC-to-DC converters 200:1 ampere an inductive transmitter (not shown) located by the mating diodes each rated 600 volts; capacitors 240:10 uF; resistors lampholders (not shown) to an inductive receiver or antenna 245:1 mega ohm; LEDs 255, 255A-255B each LED having (not shown) located in LED lamp 270, the electromagnetic forward voltage drops in the range 3. 1 -3 .6 VDC; high voltage induction power is connected to one side of high power cur regulator IC 205 is an voltage regulator lC NTE 1841 with a rent limiting resistor 280. The other side of resistor 280 is ?xed output at 43.8 volts; capacitors 210:220 uF; resistors 20 connected in series to the cathode side of one side of the 215~10 kilo ohms; resistors 220~180 kilo ohms; and capaci back-to-back zener diodes 285 and to the ?rst anti-parallel tors 225:100 uF. LED pair 290A in the series string of anti-parallel LED pairs FIG. 5 shows a third embodiment of the present invention 290. The last anti-parallel LED pair 290B is then connected to using a high power current limiting resistor 280 and back-to one side of resistor 295. The other side of resistor 295 and the back zener diodes 285 as the main voltage regulating device 25 cathode side of the other side of back-to-back zener diodes to provide power to a series string of anti-parallel diode pairs 285 are connected back to bi-pins 275. Voltage reducing 290. LED lamp 270 is shown with bi-pins 275 on opposite devices 300 may be connected to the bi-pins 275 of LED lamp ends of LED lamp 270. Voltage reducing devices 300 may be 270. connected to the bi-pins 275 of LED lamp 270. Exemplary values for the relevant electrical components The actual voltage reducing device 300 used is a varistor. A 30 depicted in FIG. 5 are: resistor 280:300 ohms; each zener varistor or similar fusing device may be used to ensure that diodes:120 volts; anti-parallel LED pairs 290, 290A-290B voltage is limited during power surges. The actual back-to each LED having forward voltage drops in the range 3.1-3.6 back zener diodes 285 can also be a back-to-back avalanche VDC; and resistor 295:800 ohms. breakdown diodes or back-to-back TVS. Each anti-parallel FIG. 6 shows an alternate embodiment of the present diode pair 290 can consist of one diode and one LED, or both 35 invention shown in FIG. 5 using high power current limiting diodes can be LEDs. LED lamp 270 shows two LEDs in each resistors 320A, 320B and back-to-back zener diodes 325A, anti-parallel diode pair 290. It will be noted that the LED lamp 325B as the main voltage regulating devices to provide power 270 will still operate with input power at only one end or to a series string of anti-parallel diode pairs 330. Each anti across any two pins on bi-pins 275. parallel diode pair 330 can consist of one diode and one LED, When ballast power is connected to one or both ends of 40 or both diodes can be LEDs. LED lamp 310 shows one diode LED lamp 270 by way of bi-pins 275, the ballast power is and one LED in each anti-parallel diode pair 330. Now, two connected to one side of high power current limiting resistor separate circuits are shown. The ?rst circuit has high power 280. The other side of resistor 280 is connected in series to the current limiting resistor 320A in series with back-to-back cathode side of one side of the back-to-back zener diodes 285 zener diodes 325A to power a series string of anti-parallel and to the ?rst anti-parallel LED pair 290A in the series string 45 diode pairs 330A-330B in series with current limiting resistor of anti-parallel LED pairs 290. The last anti-parallel LED pair 335A. The second circuit has high power current limiting 290B is then connected to one side of resistor 295. The other resistor 320B in series with back-to-back zener diodes 325B side of resistor 295 and the cathode side of the other side of to power a series string of anti-parallel diode pairs 330C back-to-back zener diodes 285 are connected back to bi-pins 330D in series with current limiting resistor 335B. The two 275. Voltage reducing devices 300 may be connected to the 50 separate circuits allow at least one series string of anti-parallel bi-pins 275 of LED lamp 270. diode pairs 330 to remain lit in the event one of the two When line voltage AC power is connected to one or both circuits should fail. LED lamp 310 is shown with bi-pins 315 ends of LED lamp 270 by way of bi-pins 275, the line voltage on opposite ends of LED lamp 310. Voltage reducing devices AC power is connected to one side of high power current 340 may be connected to the bi-pins 315 of LED lamp 310. limiting resistor 280. The other side of resistor 280 is con 55 When ballast power is connected to one or both ends of nected in series to the cathode side of one side of the back LED lamp 310 by way of bi-pins 315, the ballast power is to-back zener diodes 285 and to the ?rst anti-parallel LED connected to one side of high power current limiting resistor pair 290A in the series string of anti-parallel LED pairs 290. 320A and 320B. The other side of resistors 320A and 320B The last anti-parallel LED pair 290B is then connected to one respectively is connected in series to the cathode side of one side of resistor 295. The other side of resistor 295 and the 60 side of the back-to-back zener diodes 325A and 325B respec cathode side of the other side of back-to-back zener diodes tively, and to the ?rst anti-parallel LED pair 330A and 330C 285 are connected back to bi-pins 275. Voltage reducing respectively in the series string of anti-parallel LED pairs 330. devices 300 may be connected to the bi-pins 275 of LED lamp The last anti-parallel LED pair 330B and 330D is then con 270. nected to one side of resistors 335A and 335B respectively. When DC power is connected to one or both ends of LED 65 The other side of resistors 335A and 335B, and the cathode lamp 270 by way of bi-pins 275, the DC power is connected side of the other side of back-to-back zener diodes 325A and to one side of high power current limiting resistor 280. The 325B respectively are connected back to bi-pins 315 respec Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 20 of 23 PageID #:29 US 8,729,809 B2 19 20 tively. Voltage reducing devices 340 may be connected to the with back-to-back zener diodes 365, and three diode strings bi-pins 315 ofLED lamp 310. 370B operate when power ?ows towards high power current When line voltage AC power is connected to one or both limiting resistor 360 in series with back-to-back zener diodes ends of LED lamp 310 by way of bi-pins 315, the line voltage 365. An anti-parallel diode string pair 370 consists of one AC power is connected to one side of high power current diode string 370A and one diode string 370B allowing for the limiting resistor 320A and 320B. The other side of resistors three anti-parallel diode string pairs 370. Each anti-parallel 320A and 320B respectively is connected in series to the diode string pair 370 in turn is connected to an optional cathode side of one side of the back-to-back zener diodes current limiting resistor 375. The three separate anti-parallel 325A and 325B respectively, and to the ?rst anti-parallel LED diode string pairs 370, consisting of three diode strings 370A pair 330A and 330C respectively in the series string of anti and three diode strings 370B allow at least one series string of parallel LED pairs 330. The last anti-parallel LED pair 330B anti-parallel diode pairs 370 to remain lit in the event any one and 330D is then connected to one side of resistors 335A and of the six diode strings 370A or 370B should fail. LED lamp 335B respectively. The other side of resistors 335A and 335B, 350 is shown with bi-pins 355 on opposite ends of LED lamp and the cathode side of the other side of back-to-back zener 350. Voltage reducing devices 380 may be connected to the diodes 325A and 325B respectively are connected back to bi-pins 355 of LED lamp 350. bi-pins 315 respectively. Voltage reducing devices 340 may When ballast power is connected to one or both ends of be connected to the bi-pins 315 of LED lamp 310. LED lamp 350 by way of bi-pins 355, the ballast power is When DC power is connected to one or both ends of LED connected to one side of high power current limiting resistor lamp 310 by way of bi-pins 315, the DC power is connected 360. The other side of resistor 360 is connected in series to the to one side of high power current limiting resistor 320A and 20 cathode side of one side of the back-to-back zener diodes 365, 320B. The other side of resistors 320A and 320B respectively and to the anodes of the ?rst LEDs in diode strings 370A and is connected in series to the cathode side of one side of the the cathodes of the ?rst LEDs in diode strings 370B that form back-to-back zener diodes 325A and 325B respectively, and anti-parallel LED string pairs 370. The cathodes of the last to the ?rst anti-parallel LED pair 330A and 330C respectively LEDs in diode strings 370A and the anodes of the last LEDs in the series string of anti-parallel LED pairs 330. The last 25 in diode strings 370B of anti-parallel LED string pairs 370 are anti-parallel LED pair 330B and 330D is then connected to each tied together and connected to one side of resistors 375. one side of resistors 335A and 335B respectively. The other The other side of resistor 375 and the cathode side of the other side of resistors 335A and 335B, and the cathode side of the side of back-to-back zener diodes 365 are connected back to other side of back-to-back zener diodes 325A and 325B bi-pins 355. Voltage reducing devices 380 may be connected respectively are connected back to bi-pins 315 respectively. 30 to the bi-pins 355 of LED lamp 350. Voltage reducing devices 340 may be connected to the bi-pins When line voltage AC power is connected to one or both 315 ofLED lamp 310. ends of LED lamp 350 by way of bi-pins 355, the line voltage Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is AC power is connected to one side of high power current the process that takes place in any system where electrical limiting resistor 360. The other side of resistor 360 is con energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load 35 nected in series to the cathode side of one side of the back without interconnecting wires. When power is transmitted by to-back zener diodes 365, and to the anodes of the ?rst LEDs an inductive transmitter (not shown) located by the mating in diode strings 370A and the cathodes of the ?rst LEDs in lampholders (not shown) to an inductive receiver or antenna diode strings 370B that form anti-parallel LED string pairs (not shown) located in LED lamp 310, the electromagnetic 370. The cathodes of the last LEDs in diode strings 370A and induction power is connected to one side of high power cur 40 the anodes of the last LEDs in diode strings 370B of anti rent limiting resistors 320A and 320B. The other side of parallel LED string pairs 370 are each tied together and con resistor 320A and 320B respectively is connected in series to nected to one side of resistors 375. The other side of resistor the cathode side of one side of the back-to-back zener diodes 375 and the cathode side of the other side of back-to-back 325A and 325B respectively, and to the ?rst anti-parallel LED zener diodes 365 are connected back to bi-pins 355. Voltage pair 330A and 330C respectively in the series string of anti 45 reducing devices 380 may be connected to the bi-pins 355 of parallel LED pairs 330. The last anti-parallel LED pair 330B LED lamp 350. and 330D is then connected to one side of resistors 335A and When DC power is connected to one or both ends of LED 335B respectively. The other side of resistors 335A and 335B, lamp 350 by way of bi-pins 355, the DC power is connected and the cathode side of the other side of back-to-back zener to one side of high power current limiting resistor 360. The diodes 325A and 325B respectively are connected back to 50 other side of resistor 360 is connected in series to the cathode bi-pins 315 respectively. Voltage reducing devices 340 may side of one side of the back-to-back zener diodes 365, and to be connected to the bi-pins 315 of LED lamp 310. the anodes of the ?rst LEDs in diode strings 370A and the Exemplary values for the relevant electrical components cathodes of the ?rst LEDs in diode strings 370B that form depicted in FIG. 6 are: resistors 320A, 320BI680 ohms; each anti-parallel LED string pairs 370. The cathodes of the last zener diodes:60 volts; anti-parallel LED pairs 330, 330A 55 LEDs in diode strings 370A and the anodes of the last LEDs 330D each LED having forward voltage drops in the range in diode strings 370B of anti-parallel LED string pairs 370 are 3.1-3.6 VDC; and resistors 335A, 335B:400 ohms. each tied together and connected to one side of resistors 375. FIG. 7 shows an alternate embodiment of the present The other side of resistor 375 and the cathode side of the other invention shown in FIG. 5 using high power current limiting side of back-to-back zener diodes 365 are connected back to resistor 360 and back-to-back zener diodes 365 as the main 60 bi-pins 355. Voltage reducing devices 380 may be connected voltage regulating device to provide power to anti-parallel to the bi-pins 355 of LED lamp 350. diode string pairs 370. Each diode string 370A and 370B can Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is consist of diodes and LEDs, or the diodes can all be LEDs. the process that takes place in any system where electrical LED lamp 350 shows all LEDs in anti-parallel diode string energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load pairs 370. Now, three separate diode string pairs 370 are 65 without interconnecting wires. When power is transmitted by shown. Three diode strings 370A operate when power ?ows an inductive transmitter (not shown) located by the mating away from high power current limiting resistor 360 in series lampholders (not shown) to an inductive receiver or antenna Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 21 of 23 PageID #:30 US 8,729,809 B2 21 22 (not shown) located in LED lamp 350, the electromagnetic pairs 415 located in each packaged AC LED PCB 410. The induction power is connected to one side of high power cur last anti-parallel diode pair 415 is then connected to one side rent limiting resistor 360. The other side of resistor 360 is of resistor 420 in each packagedAC LED PCB 410. The other connected in series to the cathode side of one side of the sides of resistors 420 and the cathode side of the other side of back-to-back zener diodes 365, and to the anodes of the ?rst back-to-back zener diodes 405 are all connected back to LEDs in diode strings 370A and the cathodes of the ?rst LEDs bi-pins 395. Voltage reducing devices 425 may be connected in diode strings 370B that form anti-parallel LED string pairs to the bi-pins 395 of LED lamp 390. 370. The cathodes of the last LEDs in diode strings 370A and When DC power is connected to one or both ends of LED the anodes of the last LEDs in diode strings 370B of anti lamp 390 by way of bi-pins 395, the DC power is connected parallel LED string pairs 370 are each tied together and con to one side of high power current limiting resistor 400. The nected to one side of resistors 375. The other side of resistor other side of resistor 400 is connected in series to the cathode 375 and the cathode side of the other side of back-to-back side of one side of the back-to-back zener diodes 405 and to zener diodes 365 are connected back to bi-pins 355. Voltage the ?rst anti-parallel diode pairs 415 located in each packaged reducing devices 380 may be connected to the bi-pins 355 of AC LED PCB 410. The last anti-parallel diode pair 415 is LED lamp 350. then connected to one side of resistor 420 in each packaged Exemplary values for the relevant electrical components AC LED PCB 410. The other sides of resistors 420 and the depicted in FIG. 7 are: resistor 360:237 ohms; each zener cathode side of the other side of back-to-back zener diodes diodes:60 volts; anti-parallel LED string pairs 370, 370A 405 are all connected back to bi-pins 395. Voltage reducing 370B each LED having forward voltage drops in the range devices 425 may be connected to the bi-pins 395 of LED lamp 3.1-3.6 VDC; and resistor 375:400 ohms. 20 390. FIG. 8 shows a fourth embodiment of the present invention Wireless energy transfer or wireless power transmission is using a high power current limiting resistor 400 and back-to the process that takes place in any system where electrical back zener diodes 405 as the main voltage regulating device energy is transmitted from a power source to an electrical load to provide power to packaged AC LED PCBs 410 connected without interconnecting wires. When power is transmitted by in parallel. LED lamp 390 is shown with bi-pins 395 on 25 an inductive transmitter (not shown) located by the mating opposite ends of LED lamp 390. Voltage reducing devices lampholders (not shown) to an inductive receiver or antenna 425 may be connected to the bi-pins 395 of LED lamp 390. (not shown) located in LED lamp 390, the electromagnetic The actual voltage reducing device 425 used is a varistor. A induction power is connected to one side of high power cur varistor or similar fusing device may be used to ensure that rent limiting resistor 400. The other side of resistor 400 is voltage is limited during power surges. The actual back-to 30 connected in series to the cathode side of one side of the back zener diodes 405 can also be a back-to-back avalanche back-to-back zener diodes 405 and to the ?rst anti-parallel breakdown diodes or a back-to-back TVS or transient voltage diode pairs 415 located in each packaged AC LED PCB 410. suppressors. Each anti-parallel diode pair 415 can consist of The last anti-parallel diode pair 415 is then connected to one one diode and one LED, or both diodes can be LEDs. LED side of resistor 420 in each packaged AC LED PCB 410. The lamp 390 shows two LEDs in each anti-parallel diode pair 35 other sides of resistors 420 and the cathode side of the other 415. Anti-parallel diode pair 415 represents AC LED emitters side of back-to-back zener diodes 405 are all connected back with an external resistor 420. The combination of anti-paral to bi-pins 395. Voltage reducing devices 425 may be con lel diode pairs 415 and resistors 420 represent the packaged nected to the bi-pins 395 of LED lamp 390. AC LED PCBs 410. It is possible for the anti-parallel diode Exemplary values for the relevant electrical components pairs 415 also to be an anti-parallel string of diode pairs (not 40 depicted in FIG. 8 are: resistor 400:300 ohms; each zener shown) similar to the con?guration shown in FIG. 7. For the diode:120 volts; AC LED emitter diode pairs 415:AW3240; sake of exposition, only four anti-parallel diode pairs 415 are resistors 420:750 ohms; or packaged AC LED PCBs shown in each packaged AC LED PCB 410. There will be at 410:AW3241. least one anti-parallel diode pair 415 in each series string It will be understood that various changes in the details, connected to resistor 420 within each packagedAC LED PCB 45 materials, types, values, and arrangements of the components 410. It will be noted that the LED lamp 390 will still operate that have been described and illustrated in order to explain the with input power at only one end or across any two pins on nature of this invention may be made by those skilled in the art bi-pins 395. without departing from the principle and scope of the inven When ballast power is connected to one or both ends of tion as expressed in the following claims. LED lamp 390 by way of bi-pins 395, the ballast power is 50 We claim: connected to one side of high power current limiting resistor 1. An LED lamp device for use with multiple power 400. The other side of resistor 400 is connected in series to the sources comprising: cathode side of one side of the back-to-back zener diodes 405 ?rst and second inputs for receiving power from a ?rst and to the ?rst anti-parallel diode pairs 415 located in each power source; packaged AC LED PCB 410. The last anti-parallel diode pair 55 third and fourth inputs for receiving power from a second 415 is then connected to one side of resistor 420 in each power source; packaged AC LED PCB 410. The other sides of resistors 420 a ?rst voltage reducing device connected between said ?rst and the cathode side of the other side of back-to-back zener and second inputs for electrical communication with diodes 405 are all connected back to bi-pins 395. Voltage said ?rst power source; reducing devices 425 may be connected to the bi-pins 395 of 60 a second voltage reducing device between said second and LED lamp 390. third inputs; When line voltage AC power is connected to one or both a third voltage reducing device between said ?rst and ends of LED lamp 390 by way of bi-pins 395, the line voltage fourth inputs; AC power is connected to one side of high power current at least one voltage regulating circuit connected to said ?rst limiting resistor 400. The other side of resistor 400 is con 65 and second inputs for providing linear current, which is nected in series to the cathode side of one side of the back not dependent on a voltage or electromagnetic induction to-back zener diodes 405 and to the ?rst anti-parallel diode power; and Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 22 of 23 PageID #:31 Case: 1:16-cv-05965 Document #: 1-1 Filed: 06/07/16 Page 23 of 23 PageID #:32