Lupercal LLC v. CitiBank, N.A.

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2019-cv-00201

Exhibit PC15

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EXHIBIT PC15 0 X F 0 R D PAPERBACK REFERENCE FOURTH EDITION Oxford University Press, Great Qarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6DP Oxford NewYork Athens Auckland Bangkok Bogota Bombay Buenos Aires Calcutta Cape Town Dares Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul Karachi KualaLumpur Madras Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi Paris Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsaw and associated companies in Berlin Ibadan Oxford is a trade mark of Oxford University Press ©Market House Books Ltd. 1983, 1986, 1990, 1996 First published 1983 Second edition 1986 Third edition 1990 Fourth edition 19% First issued (with corrections) as an Oxford University Press paperback 1997 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press. Within the UK, exceptions are allowed in respect of any fair dealing for the purpose of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these terms and in other countries should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above This book is sold subject to the condition that it shall not, by way of trade or otherwise, be lent, re-sold, hired out or otherwise circulated without the publisher's prior consent in any form of binding or cover other than that in which it is published and without a similar condition including this condition being imposed on the subsequent purchaser British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available ISBN 0-19-280046-9 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 Printed in Great Britain by Biddies Ltd Guildford and King's Lynn Memorra1 L101 di) University of Wisconsin - Maaison 728 State Street M::idison_ WI 5~l70R-·14q4 235 IMAGE UNDERSTANDING part of the *IPI standard. Many techniques are available. For example, 12 L Abbrev.. for integrated miection logic. A run-length encoding allows a set of pixels bipolar integrated-circuit technology that having the same color to be specified by the allows extremely high component densities color and number of pixels with that color in on a chip. It is used for complex LSI func- a sequence. Other techniques include *frac- tions such as microprocessors and is simpler tal image compression and *wavelet image compression. Compression can produce an to fabricate than either TTL or MOS. It also approximation of the image, in which case it has lower power requirements and reason- is not possible to decompress the image and ably good switching speeds. retrieye the original form. See also lossy com- ill-conditioned See condition number. pression, lossless compression, discrete illegal character Any character not in the cosine transform. . *character set of a given machine or not image display The process of displaying an allowed by a given programming language or image on a *display. protocol. image file format A format for defining an illegal instruction An instruction that has an image. Examples are *TIFF, *IIF, and *GIF. invalid *operation code. It is sometimes image grabber See video scanner. deliberately inserted in an instruction stream when debugging in order to have a program Image Interchange Facility (llF) A part of the *IPI standard. halt, or interrupt, at a particular point. image management system (IMS) A man- ILLIAC IV An *array processor that was agement system for handling digital images. designed by Daniel Slotnick and used a l 6- An example is Starlink, used in astronomy. by-16 array of prncessing units (PUs), each interconnected to its four nearest neighbors. image processing · (picture processing) The array of PUs was regulated by a single Processing of the information contained in a processor that controlled the flow of instruc- *digital image. Image processing operations tions to the PUs. The ILLIAC IV was spon- include contrast distortion, expansion of a sored by ARPA and built by Burroughs specified range of brightness, bright outlin- Corporation. It became operable at the Ames ing of objects, correction of over- or underex- Research CenterofNASA in the early 1970s, posure of portions of the image, recognition and was finally dismantled in 1981. (and perhaps counting) of predefined objects, and comparison of one image with illumination The distribution of light falling another. The last two of these operations are on a surface. See local illumination, global examples of *pattern recognition. Some of illumination. the more advanced operations make use of image L A copy in memory of data that exists the concepts of *artificial intelligence. The elsewhere. development of i)llage processing has been 2. See digital image. prompted by applications such as satellite 3. See function. and unmanned spaceprobe observations, image capture (image acquisition) The undersea exploration, medical physics, and process of obtaining a digital image from a industrial robotics. vision sensor, such as a camera. Usually this Image Processing and Interchange See entails a hardware interface known as a frame IPL grabber, which captures single frames of image tearing The appearance of jerking video, converts the analogue values to digital, between discrete image positions. It occurs in and feeds the result into the computer mem- displays with only a single *frame buffer. See ory. The conversion process is often accom- also double buffering. panied with *image compression. image understanding Advanced *image image compression The reduction of the processing in which *artificial-intelligence number of bits used to define an image. techniques are used to interpret images by