Lupercal LLC v. CitiBank, N.A.

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2019-cv-00201

Exhibit PC17

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EXHIBIT PC17 Over,000 Entries wHh online updates available quarterly PUBLISHED BY Microsoft Press A Division of Microsoft Corporation' One Microsoft Way Redmond, Washington 98052-6399 Copyright© 1999 by Microsoft Corporation All rights reserved. No part of the contents of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of the publisher. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Microsoft Computer Dictionary. -- 4th ed. p. cm. Previous eds. published under title: Microsoft Press computer dictionary ISBN 0-7356-0615-3 1. Computers Dictionaries. 2. Microcomputers Dictionaries. I. Microsoft Press computer dictionary. QA76.15.M538 1999 004'.03--dc21 99-20168 CIP Printed and bound in the United States of America. 3456789 MLML 43210 Distributed in Canada by Penguin Books Canada Limited. A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Microsoft Press books are available through booksellers and distributors worldwide. For further information about international editions, contact your local Microsoft Corporation office or contact Microsoft Press International directly at fax (425) 936-7329. Visit our Web site at mspress.microsoft.com. Macintosh, Power Macintosh, QuickTime, and TrueType fonts are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. Kodak is a registered trademark of the Eastman Kodak Company. Intel is a regisk:red trademark and Indeo is a trademark of Intel Corporation. Active Desktop, Active Directory, ActiveMovie, Active Platf9rm, ActiveX, Authenticode, BackOffice, Directinput, DirectX, Microsoft, Microsoft Press, MS-DOS, MSN, NetMeeting, NetShow, Visual Basic, Visual C++, Visual J++, WebTV, WebTV Network, Win32, Win32s, Windows, Windows NT, and XENIX are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. PANTONE is a registered trademark of Pantone, Inc. Other product and company names mentioned herein may be the trademarks of their respective owners. The example companies, organizations, products, people, and events depicted herein are fictitious. No associa- tion with any real company, organization, product, person, or event is intended or should be inferred. Acquisitions Editor: Christey Bahn Project Editor: Kim Fryer Case 6:19-cv-00201-ADA Document 35-17 Filed 11/15/19 Page Active Movie 4 of 8 ActiveX one cell per pixel. In its simplest form there is one thin Active Server Pages n. A Web-oriented technology film transistor (TFT) for each cell. Voltage applied developed by Ml.crosoft that is designed to enable selectively to these cells produce the viewable image. server-side (as opposed to client-side) scripting. Ac- Active-matrix displays are often used in laptop and tive Server Pages are text files that can contain not notebook computers because of their shallow depth only text and HTML tags as in standard Web docu- and are notable for their high-quality color displays, ments, but also commands written in a scripting lan- which are viewable from wider angles than images guage (such as VBScript or JavaScript), that can be produced by most passive-matrix displays. Also called carried out on the server. This server-side work en- TFf, TFf display, TFT LCD. See also liquid crystal ables a Web author to add interactivity to a document display, TFT. Compare passive-matrix display: or to customize the viewing or delivery of informa- ActiveMovie n. A cross-platform digital video tech- tion to the client without worrying about the platform nology developed by Microsoft for online and desk- the client is running. All Active Server Pages are top multimedia. saved with an .asp extension and can be accessed like standard URLs through a Web browser, such as Active Platform n. A Microsoft development plat- Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. form that offers a standardized approach to incorpo- When an Active Server Page is requested by a rating Internet and distributed computing browser, the server carries out any script commands technologies in client/server applications. Microsoft embedded in the page, generates an HTML docu- Windows 9x, Microsoft Windows NT, and Microsoft ment, and sends the document back to the browser Internet Explorer 4.x (and later) provide the basis for for display on the requesting (client) computer. Ac- the Active Platform. On the client side, users are tive Server Pages can also be enhanced and extended given a consistent interface that enables them to eas- with ActiveX components. Acronym: ASP. See also ily access both local and remote information. On the Active Server, ActiveX. server side, developers can take advantage of the tools and technologies that span the client and the active star n. A form of the star network topology in server. Active Platform supports development of the which the central computer actively regenerates and modular object-oriented programs known as compo- retransmits all signals. See also star network. nent software and allows creation of cross-platform active window n. In an environment capable of dis- applications that can run on multiple chips and oper- playing multiple on-screen windows, the window ating systems,. Active Platform includes support for containing the display or document that will be af- HTML and the creation of small programs in several fected by current cursor movements, commands, and languages through client-side scripting. See also Ac- text entry. See also graphical user interface. Compare tive Desktop, Active Server, ActiveX. inactive window. active program n. The program currently in control ActiveX \ak'tiv-X\ n. A set of technologies that en- of a microprocessor. ables software components to interact with one an- Active Server n. The server-based component of other in a.networked environment, regardless of the Microsoft's Active Platform. Comprised of a set of language in which the components were created. technologies that includes DCOM (Distributed Com- ActiveX, which was developed by Microsoft in the ponent Object Model), Active Server Pages, mid 1990s and is currently administered by the Open Microsoft Transaction Server, and message queues, Group, is built on Microsoft's Component Object Active Server provides support for developing com- Model (COM). Currently, ActiveX is used primarily ponent-based, scalable, high-performance Web appli- to develop interactive content for the World Wide cations on Microsoft Windows NT servers. Active Web, although it can be used in desktop applications Server is designed to allow developers to concentrate and other programs. ActiveX controls can be embed- on creating Internet and intranet software in a·variety. <led in Web pages to produce animation and other of languages without having to focus as well on the. multimedia effects, interactive objects, and sophisti- intricacy_ of the network itself. See also Active Desk- cated applications. See also ActiveX control, COM. top, Active Server Pages, Active Platform, ActiveX. Compare applet, plug-in (definition 2). 15 control signal conversion table control signal n. An electronic signal used to control conventional memory n. The amount of RAM ad- internal or external devices or processes. dressable by an IBM PC or compatible machine op- control statement n. A statement that affects the flow erating in real mode. This is typically 640 kilobytes of execution through a program. Control statements (KB). Without the use of special techniques, conven- include conditional statements (CASE, IF-THEN- tional memory is the only kind of RAM accessible to ELSE), iterative statements (DO, FOR, REPEAT, MS-DOS programs. See also protected mode, real WHILE), and transfer statements (GOTO). See also mode. Compare expanded memory, extended conditional statement, iterative statement, statement, memory. transfer statement. convergence n. A coming together. Convergence can control strip n. 1. An equipment calibration tool used occur between different disciplines and technologies, to determine the corrections needed to restore accu- as when telephone communications and computing racy by comparing recorded data against known val- converge in the field of telecommunications: It can ues. 2. A utility that groups shortcuts to commonly also occur within a program, such as a spreadsheet, used items or information, such as time, battery when a circular set of formulas are repeatedly recal- power level, desktop items, and programs, in an eas- culated (iterated), with the results of each iteration ily accessible place. See also shortcut. coming closer to a true solution. control structure n. A portion of a program defined conversational adj. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic by the relationship between the statements, used in of the mode of operation, typical of microcomputers, structured programming. There are three basic con- in which the computer user and the system engage in trol structures: sequence, where one statement simply a dialogue of commands and system responses. See follows another; selection, where program flow de- also interactive. pends on which criteria are met; and iteration, where conversational interaction n. Interaction in which an action is repeated until some condition occurs. two or more parties alternately transmit· and receive control unit n. A device or circuit that performs an messages from each other. See also interactive pro- arbitrating or regulating function. For example, a cessing. memory controller chip contrqls access to a conversational language n. Any programming lan- computer's memory and is the.control unit for that guage that allows the programmer to instruct the memory. computer in a conversational mode, as opposed to control variable n. In programming, the variable in a more formal, structured languages. For example, in a control statement that dictates the flow of execution. COBOL program, in order to execute a procedure For example, the index variable in a FOR loop con- called CHECK 10 times, a program would use the trols the number of times a group of statements are following statement: PERFORM CHECK 10 TIMES. executed. See also control statement. conversational mode n. See conversational. convenience adapter n. See port replicator. conversion n. The process of changing from one form convention n. Any standard that is used more or less or format to another; where information is con- universally in a given situation. Many conventions cerned, a changeover that affects form but not sub- are applied to microcomputers. In programming, for stance. Types of conversion include: data (changing example, a language such as C relies on formally the way information is represented), file (changing a accepted symbols and abbreviations that must be file from one format to another), hardware (changing used in programs. Less formally, programmers usu- all or part of a computer system), media (transferring ally adopt the convention of indenting subordinate data from one storage media to another), software instructions in a routine so that the structure of the (changing a program designed for one platform so program is more easily visualized. National and in- that it runs on another), and system (changing from ternational committees often discuss and arbitrate one operating system to another). conventions for programming languages, data struc- conversion table n. A table listing a set of characters tures, communication standards, and device charac- or numbers and their equivalents in another coding teristics. See also CCITT, ISO, NTSC, standard scheme. Common examples of conversion tables in- (definition 1). clude ASCII tables, which list characters and their 112 J n. A high-level programming language created by as the principal backbone for the Internet in· that Kenneth Iverson, developer of APL, and Roger Hui. country. See also backbone (definition 1). J is a successor language to APL that may be run on Java n. An object-oriented programming language many platforms, including Windows 95, Windows developed by Sun Microsystems. Similar to C++, NT, Macintosh, Linux, RS/6000, and Sun Spare. Java is smaller, more portable, and easier to use than Like APL, J is used primarily by mathematicians. C++ because it is more robust and it manages See also APL. memory on its own. Java was also designed to be jabber n. A continuous stream of random data trans- secure and platform-neutral (meaning that it can be mitted over a network as the result of some mal- run on any platform) through the fact that Java pro- function. grams are compiled into bytecode, which is not re- jack n. A connector designed to receive a plug. A fined to the point of relying on platform-specific jack is commonly used in making audio and video instructions and runs on a computer in a special soft- connections. ware environment known as a virtual machine. This characteristic of Java makes it a useful language for jacket n. See disk jacket. programming Web applications, since users access jack in vb. 1. To log on to a computer. 2. To connect the Web from many types of computers. Java is used to a network or BBS, especially for purposes of en- in programming small applications, or applets, for tering an IRC or a virtual reality simulation, such as the World Wide Web, as well as in creating distrib- a MUD (to leave is to jack out). See also IRC, MUD. uted network applications. See also bytecode, Java jack out vb. 1. To log off a computer. 2. To disconnect applet, Jini, object-oriented programming. from a network or online bulletin board system. See Java applet n. A Java class that is loaded and run by Also: jack in, log on. an already-running Java application such as a Web Jacquard loom \jak'~rd loom\ n. The first machine browser or an applet viewer. Java applets can be that used punched cards to control its operation. In this downloaded and run by any Web browser capable of loom, developed in 1801 by French inventor Joseph- interpreting Java, such as Internet Explorer, Netscape Marie Jacquard, up to 24,000 cards were placed on a Navigator, and HotJava. Java applets are frequently rolling drum. Where a hole was punched on a card, used to add multimedia effects and interactivity to one of a set of rod& could pass through and select a Web pages, such as background music, real-time particular thread to be woven into the pattern. Jac- video displays, animations, calculators, and interac- quard was awarded a medal by the Emperor Napoleon tive games. Applets can be activated automatically for his invention. Later in the nineteenth century, when a user views a page, or they may require some punched cards were used in Charles Babbage's com- action on the part of the user, such as clicking on an puterlike Analytical Engine and in Herman Hollerith's icon in the Web page. See also applet, Java. statistical tabulating machine. See also Analytical En- JavaBean n. A Java component architecture defined gine, Hollerith tabulating/recording machine. in the JavaBeans specification developed by Sun jaggies n. The ~'stairsteps" that appear in diagonal Microsystems. A JavaBean, or Bean, is a reusable lines and curves drawn at low resolutions in com- application component-an independent code seg- puter graphics. Also called aliasing. ment-that can be combined with other JavaBean Janet n. Short for the Joint Academic Network. A components to create a Java applet or application. wide. area network in the United Kingdom that serves The JavaBean concept emphasizes the platform- independence of the Java language, in which ideally 252 Java 'c hip JetSend Protocol a program, once written, can run on any computing and designed for network computers, as well as de- platform. JavaBeans are similar to Microsoft's vices ranging from game machines to pagers and ActiveX controls. ActiveX controls, however, can be cellular telephones. See also Java. developed in different programming languages but JavaScript n. A scripting language developed by executed only on a Windows platform. JavaBeans Netscape Communications and Sun Microsystems can be developed only in the Java programming lan- that is loosely related to Java. JavaScript, however, is guage but ideally can run on any platform. See also not a true object-oriented language, and it is limited ActiveX, Java. in performance compared with Java because it is not Java chip n. An implementation on a single integrated compiled. Basic online applications and functions circuit of the virtual machine specified for execution can be added to Web pages with JavaScript, but the of the Java programming language. Such chips, number and complexity of available application pro- which are being developed by Sun Microsystems, gramming interface functions are fewer than those Inc., could be used in very small devices and as con- available with Java. JavaScript code, which is in- trollers for appliances. See also integrated circuit, cluded in a Web page along with the HTML code, Java, virtual machine. is generally considered easier to write than Java, Java-compliant browser n. A Web browser with sup- especially for novice programmers. A JavaScript- port for the Java programming language built into it. compliant Web browser, such as Netscape Navigator Most current Web browsers are Java-compliant. See or Internet Explorer, is necessary to run JavaScript also Java, Web browser. code. See also application programming interface, HTML, scripting language. Compare Java. Java Developer's Kit n. A set of software tools devel- oped by Sun Microsystems, Inc., for writing Java Java Virtual Machine n. The environment in which applets or applications. The kit, which is distributed Java programs run. The Java Virtual Machine gives free, includes a Java compiler, interpreter, debugger, Java programs a software-based "computer" they viewer for applets, and documentation. Acronym: can interact with. (Programs, even the most seem- JDK. See also applet, Java, Java applet. ingly unchallenging ones designed for children or entertainment, must run within an environment from Java Foundation Classes n. A Java-based set of class which they can use memory, display information, libraries developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. En- gather input, and so on.) Because the Java Virtual compassing fundamentals of the Internet Foundation Machine is not a real computer but exists in soft- Classes created by Netscape Communications Corp., ware, a Java program can run on any physical com- the Java Foundation Classes extend the Java Abstract puting platform, such as a Windows 9x computer or Window Toolkit (AWT) by providing graphical user a Macintosh, equipped with an interpreter-usually interface components for use in developing commer- an Internet browser- that can carry out the program's cial and Internet-related Java applications. See also instructions and a Java Virtual Machine that pro- · Abstract Window Toolkit, Application Foundation vides the "hardware" ori which the program can run. Classes, Internet Foundation Classes, Java, JavaBean, Acronym: JVM. Microsoft Foundation Classes. JCL n. Acronym for Job Control Language. A com- Java Management Application Programming mand language used in IBM OS/360 mainframe Interface n. A set of application programming inter- systems. JCL is used to launch applications and face specifications, proposed by Sun Microsystems, specifies information on running time, program Inc., to enable the Java language to be used for net- size, and the program files used for each applica- work management. Acronym: JMAPI. See also appli- tion. See also command language. cation programming interface, Java. JDK n. See Java Developer's Kit. JavaOS n. An operating system designed to run appli- cations written in the Java programming language. JetSend Protocol n. A platform-independent commu- JavaOS was created by JavaSoft; an operating com- nications protocol developed by Hewlett-Packard to pany of Sun, to run the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) enable direct device-to-device communication. The directly on microprocessors, and thus eliminate the JetSend protocol is designed to provide JetSend- need for a resident operating system. JavaOS is small enabled devices with the ability to exchange informa- 253 Visual Basic for Applications voice answer back programming version of Basic. Visual Basic was de- motherboard and allows for bus mastering (wherein signed for building Windows-based applicatl.ons. See "intelligent" adapter cards can do some processing also Basic; Visual Basic, Scripting Edition; Visual independently of the CPU). A VL bus slot consists Basic for Applications; visual programming. of a standard connector plus an additional 16-bit Visual Basic for Applications n. A macro-language Micro Channel Architecture connector and must be version of Visual Basic that is used to program many built into the motherboard by the manufacturer. Windows 9x applications and is included with sev- Standard connectors cannot simply be converted to eral Microsoft applications. Acronym: VBA. See also VL bus slots. A non-VL bus adapter card can be macro language, Visual Basic. used in a VL bus slot, but it cannot use the local bus and so performs as it normally would in a non-VL Visual Basic Script n. See Visual Basic, Scripting bus slot. Also called VL local bus. See also local Edition. bus, PCI local bus. Visual Basic, Scripting Edition n. A subset of the VLF radiation n. Short for very-low-frequency ra- Visual Basic for Applications programming lan- diation. Electromagnetic radiation (radio) at frequen- guage, optimized for Web-related programming. As cies within the range of approximately 300 Hz to with JavaScript, code for Visual Basic, Scripting Edi- 30,000 Hz (30 kHz). Computer monitors emit this tion, is embedded in HTML documents. This version type of radiation. A voluntary standard, MPR II, is included with the Internet Explorer Web browser. regulates the amount of VLF radiation that a monitor Also called VBScript, Visual Basic Script. See also can emit. See also MPR II. Visual Basic for Applications. VLIW n. Acronym for Very Long Instruction Word. Visual C++ n. A Microsoft application development An architecture that combines many simple instruc- system for the programming language C++ that runs tions into a single long instruction word that uses under MS-DOS and Windows. Visual C++ is a visual different registers. programming environment. See also visual program- VL local bus n. See VL bus. ming. Compare Visual Basic, Visual J++. VLSI n. See very-large-scale integration. visual interface n. See graphical user interface. VM n. Acronym for Virtual Machine. An operating visualization n. A feature of an application that dis- system for IBM mainframes that provides virtual- plays data in the form of a video image. For example, machine capability. VM was developed by IBM cus- some databases can interpret and show data in the tomers and later taken over by IBM itself under the form of a two- or three-dimensional model. name OSNM. See virtual machine, virtual memory. Visual J++ n. Microsoft's Java visual programming VML n. Acronym for Vector Markup Language. A environment, which can be used to create applets and specification for editable 2-D vector graphics in an applications in the Java language. See also applet, HTML or XML document. An application of XML Java, Java applet, visual programming. (Extensible Markup Language), VML uses XML tags visual programming n. A method of programming and Cascading Style Sheets to create and place vec- using a programming environment or language in tor graphics, such as circles and squares, in an XML which basic program components can be selected or HTML document, such as a Web page. These through menu choices, buttons, icons, and other pre- graphics, which are rendered in the native operating determined methods. system, can include color and are editable in a vari- VLAN \V'lan\ n. See virtual LAN. ety of graphics programs. The specification was sub- mitted to the W3C in 1998 by a variety of computer VLB 1 adj. See VESA1. companies, including AutoDesk, Microsoft, Hewlett- VLB 2 n'. See VL bus. Packard, Macromedia, and Visio. See also Cascading VL bus n. Short for VESA local bus. A type of local Style Sheets, XML. bus architecture introduced by the Video Electronics voice answer back n. The use of sound-recorded mes- Standards Association. The VL bus specification al-. sages by a computer in responding to commands or lows up to three VL bus slots to be built into a PC queries. Acronym: VAB. 473