Lupercal LLC v. CitiBank, N.A.

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2019-cv-00201

Exhibit PC18

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EXHIBIT PC18 "The Most Comprehensive A-Z Computer Reference Available" 9TH EDITION FREE CD-ROM INCLUDES THOUSANDS OF EXPANDED DEFINITIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS! More than 10,000 terms clearly and accurately defined Hundreds of illustrations help explain devices and clarify concepts Covers emerging trends and topics to keep you on top of the latest developments in computing More than 5,000 additional definitions on CD! OSBORNE Ifill Osborne/McGraw-Hill 2600 Tenth Street Berkeley, California 94710 U.S.A. To arrange bulk purchase discounts for sales promotions, premiums, or fond-raisers, please contact Osborne/McGraw-Hill at the above address. For information on translations or book distributors outside the U.S.A., please see the International Contact Information page at the end of this book. Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Ninth Edition Copyright© 2001 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher, with the exception that the program listings may be entered, stored, and executed in a computer system, but they may not be reproduced for publication. 1234567890 DOC DOC 901987654321 Book p/n 0-07-219307-7 and CD p/n 0-07-219308-5 parts of ISBN 0-07-219306-9 Publisher Computer Designers Brandon A. Nordin Lauren McCarthy, Tabitha Cagan Vice President & Associate Publisher Illustrators Scott Rogers Lyssa Wald, Michael Mueller Editorial Director Series Design Roger Stewart Peter F. Hancik Senior Project Editor Cover Design Pamela Woolf Greg Scott Proofreaders Cover Illustration Linda Medoff, Paul Medoff John Bleck This book was composed with Corel VENTURA TM Publisher. Information has been obtained by Osborne/McGraw-Hill from sources believed to be reliable. However, because of the possibility of human or mechanical error by our sources, Osborne/McGraw-Hill, or others, Osborne/ McGraw-Hill does not guarantee the accuracy, adequacy, or completeness of any information and is not responsible for any errors or omissions or the results obtained from use of such information. 10 active component active component A device that adds intelligence in some manner to the signal or data that passes through it. For example, in networking, an active hub regenerates fading input pulses into new, strong output pulses. In contrast, a passive hub is just a junction box that does not affect the passing data. active content A Web page that provides interaction or dynamic changes and contains such "action items" as animated GIFs, Java, JavaScript, streaming audio and video or ActiveX controls. Active Desktop Enhanced functionality on the desktop that is part of Internet Explorer 4.0 and higher and Windows 98. It enables Web pages to be turned into desktop items that are updated automatically. A Web page can also be turned into wallpaper, allowing a workgroup home page to be readily visible on each user's computer with links to related information on the intranet. Active Desktop supports Active Channels, which are subscriber-based content delivery systems from Internet Web sites or company intranet sites. See Active Channel. Active Directory An advanced, hierarchical directory service that comes with Windows 2000. It is LDAP compliant and built on the Internet's Domain Naming System (DNS). Workgroups are given domain names, just like Web sites, and any LDAP-compliant client (Windows, Mac, UNIX, etc.) can gain access to it. Active Directory can function in a heterogeneous, enterprise network and encompass other directories including NDS and NIS+. Cisco is supporting it in its IOS router operating system. See ADSI and directory service. active hub The central connecting device in a network that regenerates signals. Contrast with passive hub and intelligent hub. See hub. active matrix An LCD teclmology used in flat panel computer displays. It produces a brighter and sharper display with a broader viewing angle than passive matrix screens. Active matrix technology uses a thin film transistor at each pixel and is often designated as a "TFT screen." See passive matrix and LCD. active monitor In a token ring network, the station (network STAND-ALONE MACHINE (CLIENT or SERVER) adapter) that controls the token. The active monitor, which is determined through a contention process, maintains clock synchronization and detects and corrects errors in the token framing. ActiveMovie A video programming interface (API) from Microsoft for Windows 95/98 and NT that provides playback of MPEG, AVI and QuickTime video, as well as WAV audio. It can STORED ON A LAN, RUN LOCALLY decode MPEG movies in software and display them full screen at CLIENT SERVER 24 fps on a 90MHz Pentium. active window The currently-selected window. Contrast with SMB inactive window. ActiveX A brand name from Microsoft that has been used very specifically and very broadly. Today, it refers generally to ActiveX controls. For a short time, it was used to brand Microsoft's entire STORED ON A WEB SITE, RUN LOCALLY COM object architecture. See ActiveX control, COM, ActiveX Server WEB SERVER Component, OLE and COM automqtion. CLIENT (Intranet or Internet) ActiveX component A software module based on Microsoft's Component Object Model (COM) architecture. Increasingly, Microsoft HTTP is using the term ActiveX to refer to a variety of its COM-based technologies. See ActiveX control, ACtiveX Documents, ActiveX Server Component and COM. ActiveX Controls ActiveX control A software module based on Microsoft's ActiveX controls can. be stored locally or remotely, Component Object Model (COM) architecture. It enables a program but they are run locally. Computer Desktop Encyclopedia adaptive bridge 11 to add functionality by calling read y-mad e components that blend in and appear as normal parts of the prog ram. They are typically used to add user interface functions, such as 3-D toolbars, a notepad, calculator or even a sp readsheet. On the Internet or on an intran et, ActiveX controls can be linked to a Web page and downloaded by an ActiveX- compliant Web browser. ActiveX controls turn Web pages into software pages that can perform just like any program that is launched from a server. ActiveX controls were originally called "OLE controls" or "OCXs," which were Microsoft's second-generation component architecture (VBXs were the first). OLE controls were renamed ActiveX, and their interface requirements were reduced to speed • up downloading from slow-speed Internet connections. See COM, OLE, COM automation, OCX and VBX. ActiveX-enabled browser A Web browser that supports Microsoft's ActiveX componen t teclmology. It is built into Microsoft's Internet Explorer and is available as a plug-in for Netscape Navigator. See ActiveX control and ScriptActive. ActiveX Server Component A server-side software module constructed as an ActiveX component that is stored on a Windows client/server system or a Windows Web site. On a Web site, ActiveX Server Components can be called from Active Server Pages. actuator A mechanism that causes a device to be turned on or off, adjusted or moved. The motor and mechanism that moves the head assembly on a d isk drive or an arm of a robot is ca lled an actuator. See access arm. actuator arm Same as access arm. Ada A high-level programming language developed by the U.S. Department of Defense, along with the European Economic Community and many other organizations. It was designed for embedded applications and process control but is also used for logistics applications. Ada is a Pasca l-based language that is very comp rehensive. Ada was nam ed after Augusta Ada Byron (1815-1852), Countess of Lovelace and daughter of Lord Byron. She was a mathematician and colleague of Charles Babbage, who was developing his Analytical Engine. Some of her prog ramming notes for the machine have survived, g iving her the d istinction of being the first documented programmer in the world. The following Ada program converts Fahrenheit to Celsius: with Text_ IO; procedure Convert is package Int_ IO is new Text IO. Integer_ I O(Integer); Fahrenheit: Integer; begin Text_ IO.Pu t _ Line("Enter Fahrenheit"); Int _ IO.Get(Fahrenheit); Text_ IO.Put ("Cel sius is"); Int_ IO. Put ((Fah renheit-32) * 5 I 9); Text_ IO.New_ Line; end Convert; ADABAS A database management systems (DBMS) from Software AG, Reston, VA (, for IBM mainframes, VAXes, UNIX and Windows. It is an in verted list DBMS with relational capabilities. A 4GL known as NATURAL plus text retrieval, GIS processing, SQL and d istributed d atabase functions are also available. Introduced in 1969, it was one of the first DBMSs. adapter A device that allows one system to connect to and work with another. An adapter is often a simple circuit tha t con verts one set of signals to another; however, the term often refers to devices which are more accurately called "controllers." For example, display adap ters (video cards), network adapters (N ICs) and SCSI host adapters perform extensive processing, but they are still called "adap ters." See host adapter and expa11sio11 b11s. adapter card See adapter and expansion board. adaptive bridge A network bridge that remembers destination addresses in order to route subsequen t packets more quickly. Most bridges are this type. Computer Desktop Encyclopedia 510 Java 2 Java 2 The second version of Java from Sun that adds Create & Modify in C numerous enhancements, including a GUI library (Swing), accessiblity and 2-D libraries, drag and drop capabilities, WriteCor C++ source WriteCor C++ source I WrlteCor C++ source I code code code and support for several audio files and digital certificates, as well as enhanced secmity tools. Java 2 also provides a ]IT compiler and a CORBA ORB. Iltis version is kno'wn as the Intel x86 Sun SPARC Mac PowerPC [J~I I DI'~I DITu"I Java 2 Standard Edition, which was followed by the Java 2 Enterprise Edition CT2EE). See Swing and J2EE. editor editor editor Java applet A Java program that is downloaded Source Source Source code code code from the server and run from the browser. The Java Virtual Machine built into the browser is interpreting the instructions. Contrast with Java application. !compiler I !complier I !compiler I Java application A Java program that is run l machine x86 code I ' machine SPARC code ' PowerPC machine code DI'"~ o1 -., stand alone. The Java Virtual Machine in the client or server is interpreting the instructions. Contrast with Run Mac PowerPC Java applet. See servlet. - Intel x86 Windows lx86 machine Sun SPARC machine machine JavaBeans A component software architecture .code code code from Sun that runs in the Java environment. JavaBeans are independent Java program modules that are called for and executed. They have been used primarily for ~ developing user interfaces at the client side. The Create & Modify in Java server-side counterpart is Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs). See EJB and component software. Write Java source ·~~de Java Card A smart card that contains Java applets. Several applets can be stored in the card, and new ones can be added after issuance to the customer. See Java. Intel x86 D Text Java chip A CPU chip from Sun that executes editor Java bytecode natively. It is based on Sun's picoJava architecture and is expected to be used in a wide range of devices from small, handheld appliances to desktop .__ code__ Source _, network computers. The picoJava chip contains the core architecture of the Java Virtual Machine and can be ! compiler I built into cellphones and other handheld devices. The microJava chip includes the picoJava core plus memory, ls~ecode I Run a oaoa 1/0 and other control functions, and is targeted toward Intel x86 Sun SPARC Mac PowerPC controllers, network-based devices and consumer ~------~ D EJ EJ products. The first model was introduced in late 1998. The UltraJava chip is targeted for desktop use and incorporates some of Sun's 3-D graphics processing capabilities used in its UltraSPARC machines. EJ Java Community Process Sun's system for allowing third parties to submit requests for new Java Is Interpreted features to Java. JCP is a formal process that must Java is not compiled into machine language for a specific hardware platform like programs written in C or C++ (top). It is compiled into be adhered to, and fees are involved. In 1999, Sun an intermediate language called "bytecode." The bytecode program submitted Java to the ECMA standards body, but can be run by any hardware that has a Java Virtual Machine (Java withdrew its J2SE specfication later in the year. It has interpreter) available for it. That's the "write once-run anywhere" continued to promote its own JCP methodology for model that makes Java so appealing. further enhancing the language. For more information, visit http:/ / aboutJava/ communityprocess. Computer Desktop Encyclopedia