Lupercal LLC v. CitiBank, N.A.

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2019-cv-00201

Exhibit PC19

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EXHIBIT PC19 SECOND EDITION I · Alan Freedman Author of the Leading PRAISE FOR THE FIRST EDITION: "From A to Z, this is as complete a reference on. Dictionary of Computer Terms: computers as you can find." THE COMPUTER GLOSSARY · -COMPUTERWORLD This book is available at a special discount when ordered in bulk quantities. For information, contact Special Sales Department, AMACOM, an imprint of AMA Publications, a division of American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. L1brary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publ1cation Data Freedman, Alan Computer desktop encyclopedia I Alan Freedman. -- 2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN 0-8144-7985-5 1. Computers--Dictionaries. I. Title. QA76.15.~732 1999 004' . 03~-dc21 98-32408 CIP © 1999 The Computer Language Company Inc. Point Pleasant, PA 18950, USA. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The publication may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in whole or in part, in any form or by an means, electronic, . mechanical, photocopying, recording, or othewise, without the prior written permission of AMACOM, an imprint of AMA Publications, a division of American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. Printing number 10 9 8· 7 6 5 4 3 2 IV image processing image processing (1) The analysis of a picture using techniques that can identify shades, colors and relationships that cannot be perceived by the human eye. It is used to solve identification problems, such as in forensic medicine or in creating weather maps from satellite pictures and deals with images in bitmapped graphics format that have been scanned in or captured with digital cameras. · (2) Any image improvement, such as refining a picture in a paint program that has been scanned or entered from a video source. (3) Same as imaging. imagesetter A machine that generates output for the printing process, which is either a film-based paper that is photographed or the actual film for making the printing plates. Input comes from the keyboard, or via disk, tape or modem. Earlier machines handled only text and were called phototypesetters. Most imagesetters today support the PostScript language. Modern imagesetters use lasers to generate the image directly onto the film. Older machines passed light through a spinning font photomask, then through lenses that created the point size and onto film. Others created images on CRTs and exposed the film. The typesetter was originally the only machine that could handle multiple fonts and text composition such as kerning. Today, desktop laser printers are used for many typesetting jobs and are quickly advancing in resolution, although the 1270 and 2540 dpi resolutions of the imagesetter combined with the high-quality of film still provide the finest printing for photographs and halftones. mage viewer See viewer. imaging Creating a film or electronic image of any picture or pape·r form. It is accomplished by scanning or photographing an object and turning it into a matrix of dots (bitmap), the meaning of which is unknown to the computer, only to the human viewer. Scanned images of text may be encoded into computer data (ASCII or EBCDIC) with page recognition software (OCR). See micrographics, image processing and document imaging. imaging model A set of rules for representing images. imaging system See document imaging, image processing and image enhancement. IMAP (Internet Messaging Access Protocol) A standard mail server expected to be widely used on the Internet. It provides a message store that holds incoming e-mail until users log on and download it. IMAP4 is the latest version. IMAP is more sophisticated than the Post Office Protocol (POP3) mail server. Messages can be archived in folders, mailboxes can be shared, and a user can access multiple mail servers. There is also better integration with MIME, which is used to attach files. For example, users can read only the headers in the message without having to automatically accept and wait for attached files to download that they don't want. Both IMAP and POP accept SMTP-formatted messages that have been routed across the Internet. See POP3, SMTP and messaging system. IMAP4 See IMAP. IMCO Digispeak for "in my considered opinion." IMHO Digispeak for "in my humble opinion." See IMO. immediate access Same as direct access. 442 Computer Desktop Encyclopedia Java OS Java OS A Java operating system from Sun that requires minimal hardware requirements and is intended for network computers and embedded systems. It includes the Java Virtual Machine, which combined with the kernel, are written in the native machine language of the target CPU. Network and graphical user interface components are mostly written in Java. Java sandbox The constrained arena within which Java applications run, preventing for example, access to the local hard disk or to the network. While this restricts the program's capabilities, it provides security for downloading Java apps from the Internet. See object signing. JavaScript A script language from Netscape that is supported in Netscape Navigator as of Version 2.0. It is easier to use than Java, but not as powerful. JavaScript uses the HTML page as its user interface, whereas Java can generate a completely custom interface. On the client, JavaScript applets are maintained in source code. On the server, they are compiled into byte code (intermediate language), similar to Java programs. JavaScript evolved from Netscape's LiveScript language and was made more compatible with Java. JavaScript does not have the programming overhead of Java, but can be used in conjunction with it. For example, a JavaScript applet could be used to display a data entry form and validate the input, while a Java program processes the information. JavaScript is also used to tie Java applets together. See Java. JavaSoft The divis.ion within Sun that supports the Java programming language and licenses the Java Virtual Machine. JavaStation A family of network computers from Sun .that comply with the NC Reference Profile. Introduced with the same lOOMHz MicroSPARC CPU used in Sun's SPARC 4 and 5 workstations, JavaStations are expected to migrate to the Java chip. JavaStations can also run Windows applications on an NT server using software from Insignia Solutions or Citrix that turns NT into a timeshared central computer. Java Virtual Machine A Java interpreter from the JavaSoft division of Sun: It converts the Java intermediate language (byte code) into machine language one line at a time and then executes it. The Java Virtual Machine is licensed to software companies that incorporate it into their browsers and server software. Since it is used on all major platforms, Java programs run in "virtually" every computer. Microsoft also calls its Java interpreter a Java Virtual Machine. See Java. Javelin Plus A spreadsheet for DOS that can simulate multidimensional views of data. Introduced in 1985 by Javelin Software, it was more a modeling program than a spreadsheet and was the forerunner of today's OLAP databases, which are inherently designed for multiple dimensions. It was later acquired by Information Resources, Inc. and Javelin Plus 3.5 in 1993 was the last version marketed. The technology, along with IRI's Express software, was acquired by Oracle in 1995. jaybod SeeJBOD. Jaz disk Jaz Cartridge A high-capacity removable hard disk system from Iomega introduced its 1GB cartridge at 10 cents Iomega. Introduced in late 1995, Iomega startled the per megabyte in late 1995, which was a industry with its breakthrough price of $99 for a 1GB breakthrough price for that year. removable disk cartridge. The Jaz h'as been very popular. In 1997, 2GB drives were introduced, which support 1GB and 2GB cartridges. See latest disk drives. For a summary of all storage technologies, see storage. 486 Computer Desktop Encyclopedia tool Token Ring Local A local area network (LAN) developed by Workgroup Workstation (client) IBM (IEEE 802.5). It uses a token ring access method and connects up to 255 nodes in a star topology at 4 or 16 Mbps. All stations connect to a central wiring hub called the MAU (Multistation Access Unit) using a twisted wire cable. The central hub makes it easier to troubleshoot failures than a bus topology. This is a different type of hub than the one used in lOBaseT twisted pair Ethernet networks. Token Ring is more deterministic than Ethernet. Ir ensures that all users get regular turns at transmitting their data. With Ethernet, all users compete to get onto the network. Token Ring networks There are two types of Token Ring use two types of connectors: Type 1 networks. Type 1 Token Ring networks allow IBM connectors or up to 255 stations per network and use Type 3 RJ-45 connectors. shielded twisted pair wires with IBM style Type 1 connectors. Type 3 Token Rings allow up to 72 devices per network and use unshielded Token Ring Topology twisted pair (Category 3, 4 or 5) with RJ-45 Token Ring uses a logical ring topology, which provides connectors. more equal opportunity for each station to gain access Token Ririg is a data link protocol (MAC to the network than the broadcast method used by layer protocol) and functions at layers 1 and 2 Ethernet. All nodes connect to the MAU. of the OSI model. See data link protocol and OSI. Token Ring adapter A network adapter used in a Token Ring network. See network adapter. Token Ring connector Called a Type I connector and developed by IBM, it is a combination plug and socket. Flip any Type 1 IBM Connector connector 180 degrees with the other and they plug together. Type 1 connectors are token ring network used in Token A LAN access method that uses the token Ring networks. passing technology in a physical ring. Each station The same in the network passes the token on to the station connector is next to it. Token Ring and FDDI LANs use the both plug and socket just by token ring access method. See Token Ring, FDDI flipping one 180 and token passing. degrees with the other. Token Talk Software for the Macintosh from Apple that accompanies its TokenTalk NB board and adapts the Mac to Token Ring Networks. toll quality audio Audio transmission at the quality level of an ordinary long distance telephone call. toner An electrically charged ink used in copy machines and laser printers. It adheres to an invisible image that has been charged with the opposite polarity onto a plate or drum or onto the paper itself. tool (1) A program used for software development or system maintenance. Virtually any program or utility that helps programmers or users develop applications or maintain their computers can be called a tool. Computer Desktop Encyclopedia 915 tool bar Examples of programming tools are compilers, interpreters, assemblers, 4GLs, editors, debuggers and application generators. See toolkit. (2) A program that helps the user analyze or search for data. For example, query and report programs are often called query tools and report tools. (3) An on-screen function in a graphics program; for example, a line draw, circle draw or brush tool. tool bar A row or column of on-screen buttons used to activate functions in the application. Some toolbars are customizable, letting you add and delete buttons as required. See tool palette. Tool Book An application development system for Windows from Asymetrix Learning Systems, Bellevue, WA,. (, that uses A Toolbar with Tools! a "page and book" metaphor analogous to Most tool bar buttons show only pictures, while some have Apple's HyperCard "card and stack." Its a text explanation too. This toolbar from VTEL's OpenScript language is also similar to videoconferencing software has real tools on it! HyperTalk. toolbox See toolkit and toolbar. toolkit An integrated set of software routines or utilities (tools) that are used to develop programs and/or create and maintain databases. See tool, developer's toolkit, library, .class library, Encyclopedia Toolkit and CASE. tool palette A collection of buttons grouped together on screen that provide a quick way to select the functions available in the program. A tool palette is typically found in graphics software such as a drawing program or image editor, but a tool palette can be used to provide functions for any kind of program. Tool palettes can generally be customized to display the functions used most often, leaving the rest to be selected by menus. See toolbar. tools vendor A publisher of development software used by programmers, which includes compilers, debuggers, visual programming utilities and CASE products. A tools vendor may provide a variety of utilities and routines that assist programmers and systems analysts. See tool. TOP (Technical Office Protocol) A communications protocol for office systems developed by Boeing Computer Services, Seattle, WA, ( It uses the Ethernet access method and is often used in conjunction with MAP, the factory automation protocol developed by GM. TOP is used in the front office, and MAP is used on the factory floor. TOP uses the CSMA/CD access method, while MAP uses token bus. topdown design A design technique that starts with the highest level of an idea and works its way down to the lowest level of detail. topdown programming A programming design and documentation technique that imposes a hierarchical structure on the design of the program. See structured programming. top level domain See Internet domain names. top of file The beginning of~ file. In a word processing file, it is the first character in the document. In a data 916 Computer Desktop Encyclopedia