Match Group, LLC v. Bumble Trading Inc.

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2018-cv-00080

Exhibit 4

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0 EXHIBIT 4 Case 6:19.ev.20020.ADA Document 76.6. Eiled 04126119 Page 2 of 10 Oxford Dictionary of English er you are whereve The world's most trusted dictionaries Case 6:18-cv-00080-ADA Document 76-6 Filed 04/26/19 Page 3 of 10 OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6DP Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries © Oxford University Press 1998, 2003, 2005, 2010 Database right Oxford University Press (makers) First edition 1998 Second edition 2003 Second edition, revised 2005 Third edition 2010 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available Typeset in Parable, Frutiger, and OUP Argo by Datagrafix, Inc. Printed in Italy by L.E.G.O.S.p.A., Lavis (TN) ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 4253001741119747 0 All Ordinaries index | ally 44 wenn. . UMA Hotel di All Ordinaries index (on the Australian stock exchanges) an index based on the weighted average of selected ordinary share prices. allosaurus / ala'soras/ noun a large bipedal car- nivorous dinosaur of the late Jurassic period. .Genus Allosaurus, suborder Theropoda, order Saurischia. - ORIGIN modern Latin, from Greek allos 'other'+ sauros lizard'. allosteric / ala'sterik, -strərik/ adjective Biochemistry relating to or denoting the alteration of the activity of an enzyme by means of a conformational change induced by a different molecule. allotverb (allots, allotting, allotted) (with obj.) give or apportion (something) to someone: equal time was allotted to each with two obisl I was allotted a little room in the servant's block. - ORIGIN late 15th cent.: from Old French aloter, from a-(from Latin ad'to') + loter 'divide into lots'. allotment noun 1 Brit. a plot of land rented by an individual for growing vegetables or flowers. US chiefly historical a piece of land made over by the govern. ment to an American Indian. 2 (mass noun) the action of allotting something. (count noun) an amount allotted to a person. allotrope /'alətrəvp/ noun Chemistry each of two or more different physical forms in which an element can exist. Graphite, charcoal, and diamond are all allotropes of carbon. - ORIGIN late 19th cent.: back-formation from ALLOTROPY. allotropy /a'lptrapi/ noun (mass noun] Chemistry the existence of two or more different physical forms of a chemical element. - DERIVATIVES allotropic adjective. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from Greek allotropos'of another form', from allo-'other' + tropos 'manner (from trepein'to turn'). allotteenoun a person to whom something is allot- ted, especially land or shares. all-over adjective (attrib.) covering the whole of some- thing: she returned with an all-over tan. allow verb (with obj.] 1 let (someone) have or do something: (with obj. and infinitive] the dissident was allowed to leave the country with two objs) she was allowed a higher profile. E [with obj. and adverbial of direc- tion) let (someone) enter a place or go in a particular direction: the river was patrolled and few people were allowed across. declare or decide that an event or activity) is legal or acceptable: political advertising on television is not allowed. 2 give the necessary time or opportunity for: they agreed to a ceasefire to allow talks with the govern- ment Ilwith obj. and infinitive] he stopped to allow his eyes to adjust. (no obj.) (allow for) make provision or provide scope for the house was demolished to allow for road widening. - (no obj.) (allow for) take (something) into consideration when making plans or calculations: income rose by 11 per cent allowing for inflation provide or set aside for a particular purpose: allow an hour or so for driving. 3 [reporting verb) admit the truth of; concede: (with clause) he allowed that the penalty appeared too harsh for the crime | (with direct speech) 'Could happen,' she allowed indifferently. (with clause) N. Amer. informal or dialect be of the opinion; assert: Lincoln allowed that he himself could never support the man. PHRASES allow me said when making a polite request or offering help: please allow me to introduce myself l "Here, allow me," came a woman's voice from behind him. - DERIVATIVES allowedly adverb. - ORIGIN Middle English (originally in the senses 'commend, sanction' and 'assign as a right'): from Old French alouer, from Latin allaudare 'to praise', reinforced by medieval Latin allocare'to place' (see ALLOCATE). allowable adjective 1 allowed, especially within a set of regulations; permissible: the loan deal has been extended to the maximum allowable three months. 2 Brit. (of an amount of money) able to be earned or received free of tax: tax is payable after deduction of allowable expenses. - DERIVATIVES allowably adverb. allowance noun the amount of something that is permitted, especially within a set of regulations or for a specified purpose: your baggage allowance. Brit. an amount of money that can be earned or received free of tax: a personal allowance. Horse Racing a deduction in the weight that a horse is required to carry in a race. 2 a sum of money paid regularly to a person to meet needs or expenses: the elderly receive a heating allow- ance every winter. chiefly -re a small amount of money given regularly to a child by its parents. 3 [mass noun) archaic tolerance: the alliance of slavery in the South. verb (with obj.) archaic give someone) a sum of money as an allowance. - PHRASES make allowance(s) for 1 take into consideration when planning something. 2 treat leniently on account of mitigating circumstances. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French alouance, from alouer (see ALLOW). alloxan a'loks(ə)n/ noun (mass noun) Chemistry an acidic compound obtained by the oxidation of uric acid and isolated as an efflorescent crystalline hydrate. . Chem. formula: C,H,N,0.. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from all(antoin) + ox(alic) + -AN. alloy noun /'albi/ a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements, especially to give greater strength or resistance to corrosion: an alloy of nickel, bronze, and zinc | las modifier) alloy wheels. an inferior metal mixed with a precious one. verb /a'l31/ (with obj.) mix (metals) to make an alloy: alloying tin with copper to make bronze. - ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from Old French aloi (noun) and French aloyer (verb), both from Old French aloier, aleier'combine', from Latin alligare 'bind'. In early use the term denoted the comparative purity of gold or silver; the sense 'mixture of metals' arose in the mid 17th cent. all-party adjective (attrib.) Brit. involving all political parties: the measure received all-party support. all-pervasive (also all-pervading) adjective occur- ring or having an effect through or into every part of something: the all-pervasive excitement. all-points bulletin (abbrev.: APB) noun (in the US) a radio message sent to every officer in a police force giving details of a suspected criminal or stolen vehicle. all-powerful adjective having complete power: an all-powerful dictator. all-purpose adjective having a great many uses: an all-purpose kitchen knife. all right adjective (predic.) of a satisfactory or accept- able quality: the tea was all right. Ein a satisfactory mental or physical state: do you feel all right to walk home? permissible; allowable: it's all right for you to go now. adverb 1 in a satisfactory manner or to a satisfactory extent; fairly well: we get on all right. 2 used to emphasize how certain one is about some thing: 'Are you sure it's him?''It's him all right.' exclamation expressing or asking for assent, agree. ment, or acceptance: all right, I'll tell you. - PHRASES it's all right for- used to suggest that someone is luckier than you: it was all right for them! They didn't have to put up with the brat trailing after them "It's all right for some,"Grandad huffed. it'll be all right on the night used to say that a performance or event will be successful even if the preparations have not gone well: the organizer's assure everyone that it will all be all right on the night. all-round adjective lattrib.) Brit. 1 having a great many abilities or uses; versatile: an all-round artist. w in many or all respects: his all-round excellence. 2 on or from every side or in every direction: the car's large glass area provides excellent all-round vision. all-rounder noun Brit. a versatile person or thing, especially a cricketer who can both bat and bowl well. All Saints' Day noun a Christian festival in honour of all the saints in heaven, held (in the Western Church) on 1 November. all-seater adjective Brit. (of a sports stadium) having a seat for every spectator and no standing places. allseed noun any of a number of plants producing a large number of seeds for their size. Species in several families, in particular the small Radiola linoides (family Linaceae) of Europe. All Souls' Day noun a Catholic commemoration with prayers for the souls of the dead, held on 2 November allspice noun 1 (mass noun) the dried aromatic fruit of a Caribbean tree, used whole or ground as a culinary spice and in the production of certain liqueurs such as Benedictine. 2 a tree of the myrtle family from which allspice is obtained. Also called PIMENTO Or JAMAICA PEPPER. Pimenta dioica, family Myrtaceae. 3 an aromatic North American tree or shrub. Genus Calycanthus, family Calycanthaceae. all-star adjective (attrib.) composed wholly of out- standing performers or players: an all-star cast. noun N. Amer. a member of an all-star group or team. Aliston /'3:1st(ə)n/, Washington (1779-1843), Amer- ican landscape painter, the first major artist of the American romantic movement. all-terrain vehicle noun a small open motor vehicle with one seat and three or more wheels fitted with large tyres, designed for use on rough ground. all-ticket adjective denoting an event, especially a sports match, for which spectators must buy tickets in advance. all-time adjective (attrib.) unsurpassed: her all-time favourite interest rates hit an all-time high. alludeverb (no obj.) (allude to) suggest or call atten. tion to indirectly; hint at: she had a way of alluding to Jean but never saying her name. mention without discussing at length: we will allude briefly to the main points. (of an artist or a work of art) recall (an earlier work or style) in such a way as to suggest a relationship with it. - ORIGIN late 15th cent. (in the sense 'hint at, suggest'): from Latin allus-, alludere, from ad- 'towards' + ludere 'to play'. all-up weight noun chiefly Brit. the total weight of an aircraft with passengers, cargo, and fuel. allure noun (mass noun) the quality of being power- fully and mysteriously attractive or fascinating: people for whom gold holds no allure. verb (with obj.) powerfully attract or charm; tempt: will sponsors really be allured by such opportunities? - DERIVATIVES allurement noun. - ORIGIN late Middle English in the sense 'tempt, entice'): from Old French aleurier 'attract', from a-(from Latin ad'to') + luere 'a lure' (originally a falconry term). alluring adjective powerfully and mysteriously attractive or fascinating; seductive: the town offers alluring shops and restaurants. - DERIVATIVES alluringly adverb. allus /ɔ:ləz, 'alez/ adverb non-standard spelling of ALWAYS. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: representing a regional pronunciation. allusion noun an expression designed to call some. thing to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference: an allusion to Shake- speare a classical allusion. [mass noun] the practice of making allusions. - ORIGIN mid 16th cent. (denoting a pun, meta- phor, or parable): from French, or from late Latin allusio(12-), from the verb alludere (see ALLUDE). allusive adjective using or containing suggestion rather than explicit mention: allusive references to the body | a highly allusive poet. - DERIVATIVES allusively adverb, allusiveness noun. alluvial /a'l(j)u:vrəl/ adjective relating to or derived from alluvium: rich alluvial soils. alluvion /a'l(j)u:vian/ noun (mass noun) chiefly Law the action of the sea or a river in adding to the area of land by deposition. Compare with AVULSION. - ORIGIN mid 16th cent. (originally denoting a flood, especially one carrying suspended material which is then deposited): from French, from Latin alluvio(n.), from ad-'towards' + luere 'to wash'. alluvium /a'l(i)u:viǝm/noun (mass noun) a deposit of clay, silt, and sand left by flowing floodwater in a river valley or delta, typically producing fertile soil. - ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: Latin, neuter of alluvius 'washed against', from ad 'towards' + luere 'to wash'. all-weather adjective in or suitable for all types of weather: an all-weather soccer pitch. all-wheel drive noun North American term for FOUR-WHEEL DRIVE. ally' /'alai/ noun (pl. allies) a state formally cooper- ating with another for a military or other purpose. a person or organization that cooperates with or helps another in a particular activity: he was forced to dismiss his closest political ally. * (the Allies) the countries that fought with Britain in the First and Second World Wars. verb also /a'la/ (allies, allying, allied) (with obj.) (ally something to/with) combine or unite a resource or commodity with another) for mutual benefit: he defiderikk Murpr isioneros. L S VOWELS: a cat a: arm E bed: hair a ago 2: her i sit i cosy i: see d hot 5: saw A run v put u: too Ai my 0 assimilationist assurance 96 - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Latin assimilat- 'absorbed, incorporated', from the verb assimilare, from ad-'to' + similis 'like' assimilationist noun a person who advocates or participates in racial or cultural integration. Assisi' /a'si:si/ a town in the region of Umbria in central Italy; pop. 27,507 (2008). It is famous as the birthplace of St Francis, whose tomb is located there. Assisi? see CLARE OF Assisi, ST. Assisi' see FRANCIS OF Assisi, ST. assist verb (with obj.) help (someone), typically by doing a share of the work: a senior academic would assist him in his work Ino obj.) their presence would assist in keeping the peace. help by providing money or information: they were assisting police with their inquiries | Ino obj.) funds to assist with capital investment. [no obj] be present as a helper: two midwives who assisted at a water birth. ► noun chiefly N. Amer. an act of giving help, typically by providing money: the budget must have an assist from tax policies. = (in sport) an act of touching the ball in a play in which a teammate scores or an opposing batter is put out: Elliot had 10 points and five assists. - DERIVATIVES assister noun, assistive adjective. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French assis- ter, from Latin assistere 'take one's stand by' from ad-'to, at' + sistere 'take one's stand'. assistance noun (mass noun) the action of helping someone by sharing work: the work was completed with the assistance of carpenters. the provision of money, resources, or information to help someone: schemes offering financial assistance to employers she will be glad to give advice and assistance. - PHRASES be of assistance be of practical use or help: the guide will be of assistance to development groups. come to someone's assistance act to help someone. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French, or from medieval Latin assistentia, from Latin assistere (see ASSIST). assistant noun a person who ranks below a senior person: the managing director and his assistant llas modifier) an assistant manager. (with adj. or noun modi- fier) a person who helps in particular work: a care assistant. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French, or from medieval Latin assistent-'taking one's stand beside', from the verb assistere (see ASSIST) assistant professor noun N. Amer, a university teacher ranking immediately below an associate professor assistantship noun N. Amer. a paid academic appoint- ment made to a graduate student that involves part- time teaching or research. assisted area noun (in the UK) a region receiv- ing government grants or loans for industrial development. assisted place noun (in the UK) a place in an independent school for a pupil whose fees are wholly or partially subsidized by the state. assisted suicide noun (mass noun) the suicide of a patient suffering from an incurable disease, effected by the taking of lethal drugs provided by a doctor for this purpose. assize a'SAIZ) noun (usu. assizes historical a court which formerly sat at intervals in each county of England and Wales to administer the civil and criminal law. In 1972 the civil jurisdiction of assizes was transferred to the High Court, and the criminal jurisdiction to the Crown Court. - ORIGIN Middle English: from Old French assise. feminine past participle of asseeir 'sit, settle, assess', from Latin assidere (see ASSESS). ass-kicking adjective N. Amer. vulgar slang forceful or aggressive. ass-kissing noun (mass noun) N. Amer. vulgar slang ob- sequious behaviour in order to gain favour. ass-licking noun vulgar slang US spelling of ARSE- LICKING assload noun N. Amer. vulgar slang a large number or amount of something. Assoc. abbreviation (as part of a title) Association. associate verb /atsauſieit, -siert/ (with obj.1 (often associate someone/thing with connect (some. one or something) with something else in one's mind: 1 associated wealth with freedom. connect (something) with something else because they occur together or one produces the other: the environment al problems associated with nuclear waste. (be associated with) be associate oneself with) allot onese fute cocted with or seen to be suppo e o Seciate myself with some of the language usea. ¡no vuj.) meet or have dealings with someone regarded with disapproval: he began to associate with the Mafia. noun /a'sauſiet, -Siət/ 1 a partner or companion in business or at work: a close associate of the Minister. 2 a person with limited or subordinate membership of an organization. 3 chiefly Psychology a concept connected with another. adjective /a'sausiət, -siət/ lattrib.) connected with an organization or business: an associate company. having shared function or membership but with a lesser status: the associate director of the academy. - DERIVATIVES associability noun, associable adject- ive, associateship noun, associator noun. - ORIGIN late Middle English (as a verb in the sense join with in a common purpose': as an adjective in the sense 'allied'): from Latin associat-'joined', from the verb associare, from ad-'to' + socius 'sharing, allied associated adjective (of a person or thing) connect- ed with something else: two associated events. (of a company) connected or amalgamated with another company or companies. Chemistry (of liquids) in which the molecules are held together by hydrogen bonding or other weak interaction. Associated Press (abbrev.: AP) an international news agency based in New York City. associate professor ► noun N. Amer. an academic ranking immediately below full professor. association noun 1 (often in names) a group of people organized for a joint purpose: the National Association of Probation Officers. Ecology a stable plant community including a characteristic group of dominant plant species. 2 a connection or cooperative link between people or organizations: he developed a close association with the university I (mass noun) the programme was promoted in association with the Department of Music. (mass noun) the process or state of becoming a subordinate member of an organization: (as modifier] an association agreement between Bulgaria and the EU. Chemistry the linking of molecules through hydrogen bonding or other interaction short of full bond formation. 3 (usu. associations) a mental connection between things: the word bureaucracy has unpleasant associ- ations. (mass noun) the action of making a mental connection: there's nothing new in the association of fasting with spirituality. 4 (mass noun) the state of occurring with something else; Co-occurrence: cases of cancer found in associ. ation with colitis. - DERIVATIVES associational adjective. - ORIGIN mid 16th cent. (in the sense 'uniting in a common purpose'): from medieval Latin association-), from Latin associare'to unite, ally' (see ASSOCIATE). association area noun Anatomy a region of the cor- tex of the brain which connects sensory and motor areas, and which is thought to be concerned with higher mental activities. Association football noun (mass noun) Brit. more formal term for SOCCER. associationism noun (mass noun) a theory in philosophy or psychology which regards the simple association or co-occurrence of ideas or sensations as the primary basis of meaning, thought, or learning. - DERIVATIVES associationist noun & adjective. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (abbrev.: ASEAN a regional organization intended to promote economic cooperation and now compris- ing the countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philip- pines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and Brunei. associative adjective 1 of or involving the associ- ation of things: making associative links. m Computing of or denoting computer storage in which items are identified by content rather than by address. 2 Mathematics involving the condition that a group of quantities connected by operators gives the same result whatever their grouping, i.e. in whichever order the operations are performed, as long as the order of the quantities remains the same, e.g. (a xb) X c = ax (b XC). assonance /'as(ə)nans/ noun (mass noun) resemblance of sound between syllables of nearby words, aris. ing particularly from the rhyming of two or more stressed vowels, but not consonants (e.g. sonnet, por ridge), but also from the use of identical consonants with different vowels (e.g. killed, cold, culled). - DERIVATIVES assonant adjective, - ORIGIN early 18th cent.: from French, from Latin assonare 'respond to', from ad-'to' + sonare (from sonus 'sound'). assortverb 1 (no obj.) Genetics (of genes or character- istics) become distributed among cells or progeny. 2 (with obj. archaic place in a group; classify: he would assort it with the fabulous dogs as a monstrous invention. - ORIGIN late 15th cent.: from Old French assorter, from a-(from Latin ad'to, at') + sorte 'sort, kind'. assortative adjective denoting or involving the preferential mating of animals or marriage between people with similar characteristics. assorted adjective (attrib.) of various sorts put together; miscellaneous: bowls in assorted colours. assortment noun a miscellaneous collection of things or people: the room was filled with an assort- ment of clothes. ASSR abbreviation historical Autonomous Soviet Social- ist Republic. Asstabbreviation Assistant. assuage [a'sweidz/verb (with obj.) make an unpleas- ant feeling) less intense: the letter assuaged the fears of most members. E satisfy (an appetite or desire): an opportunity occurred to assuage her desire for knowledge. - DERIVATIVES assuagement noun. - ORIGIN Middle English: from Old French ass- ouagier, asouagier, based on Latin ad-'to' (expressing change) + suavis'sweet'. As Sulaymaniyah /as/ full name of SULAYMANIYAH. assume verb (with obj.] 1 suppose to be the case, with- out proof: topics which assume detailed knowledge of local events with clause) it is reasonable to assume that such changes have significant social effects (with obj. and infinitive) they were assumed to be foreign. 2 take or begin to have power or responsibility): he assumed full responsibility for all organizational work. = seize (power or control). 3 begin to have a specified quality, appearance, or extent): militant activity had assumed epidemic pro- portions. take on or adopt (a manner or identity), sometimes falsely: Oliver assumed an expression of penitence (as adj. assumed) a man living under an assumed name. - DERIVATIVES assumable adjective, assumedly adverb. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Latin assumere, from ad-'towards' + sumere 'take'. assuming conjunction used for the purpose of argu- ment to indicate a premise on which a statement can be based: assuming that the treaty is ratified, what is its relevance? adjective archaic arrogant or presumptuous. assumption noun 1 a thing that is accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof: they made cer- tain assumptions about the market with clause) we're working on the assumption that the time of death was after midnight. 2 (mass noun) the action of taking on power or respons ibility. 3 (Assumption) the reception of the Virgin Mary bodily into heaven. This was formally declared a doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church in 1950. the feast in honour of the Assumption, celebrated on 15 August. 4 Imass noun) archaic arrogance or presumption. - ORIGIN Middle English (in sense 3): from Old French asompsion or Latin assumption-), from the verb assumere (see ASSUME). assumptive adjective 1 rare of the nature of an assumption. 2 archaic arrogant or presumptuous. - ORIGIN mid 16th cent. (in the sense 'taken, adopted'): from Latin assumptivus, from the verb assumere (see ASSUME). Assur /'afuə/ (also Asur or Ashur) an ancient city- state of Mesopotamia, situated on the River Tigris to the south of modern Mosul. It was the traditional capital of the Assyrian empires. assurance noun 1 a positive declaration intended to give confidence; a promise: [with clause) he gave an assurance that work would begin on Monday. 2 (mass noun) confidence or certainty in one's own abilities: she drove with assurance. e certainty about something: assurance of faith depends on our trust in God. VOWELS: a cat a: arm & bed E: haira ago a: her i sit i cosy i: see p hot 3: saw A run u putu: too AI my 0 autocephalous | automaton 108 autocephalous /, tə(U)'sef(ə)las, kef-/ adjective Computing (of a modem) automatically dial a telepnone procesautomatically and in a way that seems inge. (of an Eastern Christian Church) appointing its own number or establish a connection with a comp21 us inexplicable, or magical: just type in the name head, not subject to the authority of an external - DERIVATIVES autodialler noun. D i t want to listen to, and it automagically patriarch or archbishop. autodidact / təudidakt/ noun a self-taugh 1,2 your computer. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from Greek autokephalos person. O GN 40s: blend of AUTOMATICALLY and MAGICALLY, (from autos 'self' + kephale 'head') + -OUS. - DERIVATIVES autodidactic adjective. automaker noun N. Amer. a company which manu. autochanger (also autochange) noun a mecha - ORIGIN mid 18th cent.: from Greek autodidaktos factures cars. nism for the automatic substitution of one CD or 'self-taught', from autos 'self' + didaskein 'teach'. automat noun US historical a cafeteria in which food record for another during use. auto-erotic adjective relating to sexual excitement and drink were obtained from slot machines. autochrome noun (mass noun] (usu. as modifier] an early generated by stimulating or fantasizing about one's - ORIGIN late 17th cent. (denoting an automaton): form of colour photography using plates coated with own body. from German, from French automate, from Latin dyed starch grains, patented by the Lumière brothers - DERIVATIVES auto-eroticism noun. automaton (see AUTOMATON). The current sense dates in 1904. (count noun a colour photograph made by auto-exposure noun a device which sets the from the early 20th cent. this process. exposure automatically on a camera. Imass noun the automate verb (with obj.) convert (a process or facil- autochthon /:'toke(a)n, -eeun/ noun (pl. autoch- facility to set exposure automatically. ity) to be operated by largely automatic equipment: thons or autochthones /-Gani:z/) an original or autofill noun Computing a software function that industry is investing in automating production (as indigenous inhabitant of a place; an aborigine. completes data in browser forms without the user adj. automated) a fully automated process. - ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from Greek, literally 'sprung needing to type it in full. - ORIGIN 1950s: back-formation from AUTOMATION. from the earth', from autos'self' + khthon 'earth, autofocus noun a device focusing a camera or other auto er automated teller machine noun a machine soil'. piece of equipment automatically. mass noun) the that automatically provides cash and performs other autochthonous /5'tokənas/ adjective (of an facility for automatic focusing. banking services on insertion of a special card by the inhabitant of a place) indigenous rather than - DERIVATIVES autofocusing noun. account holder. descended from migrants or colonists. Geology (of a autogamy /:'togəmi/ noun Biology self-fertilization, automatic adjective 1 (of a device or process) deposit or formation) formed in its present position. especially the self pollination of a flower. Compare working by itself with little or no direct human Often contrasted with ALLOCHTHONOUS. with ALLOGAMY. control: an automatic kettle that switches itself off - DERIVATIVES autogamous adjective. when it boils calibration is fully automatic. autoclave /ɔ:tə(U)kleiv/ noun a strong heated (of a - ORIGIN late 19th cent.: from AUTO-1 'self' + Greek container used for chemical reactions and other firearm) self-loading and able to fire continuously processes using high pressures and temperatures, until the ammunition is exhausted or the pressure -gamia (from gamos 'marriage'). on the trigger is released. (of a motor vehicle or its e.g. steam sterilization. autogenic 1,9tə(u)'dzenik/ adjective technical self- transmission) using gears that change by themselves verb (with obj.) heat (something) in an autoclave. generated: autogenic succession. according to speed and acceleration. - ORIGIN late 19th cent.: from French, from auto- autogenic training noun (mass noun) a form of 2 done or occurring spontaneously, without 'self' + Latin clavus 'nail' or clavis 'key' (so named relaxation therapy involving auto-suggestion. conscious thought or attention: automatic physical because it is self-fastening). autogenous /:'todzmas/ adjective arising from functions such as breathing | Nice to meet you,' he autocomplete noun Computing a software function within or from a thing itself. (of welding) done said, with automatic politeness. e done or occurring that completes words or strings without the user either without a filler or with a filler of the same as a matter of course and without debate: he is the needing to type them in full. metal as the pieces being welded. automatic choice for the senior team. - (especially of autocorrelation noun (mass noun) Mathematics & Statis- a legal sanction given or imposed as a necessary and autogiro (also autogyro) noun (pl. autogiros) tics correlation between the elements of a series and a form of aircraft with freely rotating horizontal inevitable result of a fixed rule or particular set of others from the same series separated from them blades and a propeller. It differs from a helicopter circumstances: he received an automatic one-match by a given interval. (count noun) a calculation of such in that the blades are not powered but rotate in suspension. correlation. the slipstream, propulsion being by a conventional noun 1 a gun that continues firing until the ammuni- tion is exhausted or the pressure on the trigger is autocracy /:'tokrasi/ noun (pl. autocracies) (mass mounted engine. released. - ORIGIN 19205: from Spanish, from auto-'self' + giro noun) a system of government by one person with 2 a vehicle with automatic transmission. absolute power. (count noun) a state or society gov. gyration'. - DERIVATIVES automatically adverb, automaticity erned by one person with absolute power. domi autograft noun a graft of tissue from one point to noun. neering rule or control: a boss who shifts between another of the same individual's body. - ORIGIN mid 18th cent.: from Greek automatos 'act- autocracy and consultation. autograph noun 1 a signature, especially that of a ing of itself' (see AUTOMATON) +-IC. - ORIGIN mid 17th cent. (in the sense 'autonomy'): celebrity written as a memento for an admirer: fans from Greek autokrateia, from autokratēs (see automatic gain control noun (mass noun) Electronics surged around the car asking for autographs. AUTOCRAT). a feature of certain amplifier circuits which gives a 2 a manuscript or musical score in an author's or constant output over a wide range of input levels. autocrat noun a ruler who has absolute power. - an musician's own handwriting. (mass noun] a person's automatic pilot. noun a device for keeping an imperious person who insists on complete obedience handwriting from others. verb (with obj.) write one's signature on something); aircraft on a set course without the intervention of - ORIGIN early 19th cent.: from French autocrate, sign: the whole team autographed a shirt for him (as the pilot. - PHRASES on automatic pilot out of routine or from Greek autokratēs, from autos 'self' + kratos adj. autographed) an autographed photo. habit, without concentration or conscious thought: I power'. adjective written in the author's own handwriting: an leapt out of bed and dressed on automatic pilot. autograph manuscript. (of a painting or sculpture) autocratic adjective relating to a ruler who has automatic translation noun another term for absolute power: the constitutional reforms threat- done by the artist, not by a copier. - DERIVATIVES autographic adjective. MACHINE TRANSLATION. ened his autocratic power. = taking no account of other people's wishes or opinions; domineering: a - ORIGIN early 17th cent.: from French autographe or automatic writing noun (mass noun) writing said to man with a reputation for an autocratic management late Latin autographum, from Greek autographon, be produced by a spiritual, occult, or subconscious neuter of autographos 'written with one's own hand', style. agency rather than by the conscious intention of the - DERIVATIVES autocratically adverb. from autos'self' + graphos 'written'. writer. autocrine /ɔ:ta(U)krain/ adjective Biochemistry denot. autography noun (mass noun) 1 writing done with automation noun (mass noun) the use or introduction one's own hand. ing or relating to a cell-produced substance that has of automatic equipment in a manufacturing or other 2 the facsimile reproduction of writing or illustra- an effect on the cell by which it is secreted. process or facility. tion. - ORIGIN 1980s: from AUTO-1 + Greek krinein 'to sepa- - ORIGIN 1940s (originally US): irregular formation 3 [count noun] an autobiography. rate' from AUTOMATIC +-ATION. autoharp noun a kind of zither fitted with a series autocross noun (mass noun) Brit. a form of motor automatism /o:tomatiz(a)m/noun (mass noun) of sprung and padded bars which allow the playing Psychiatry the performance of actions without con- racing in which cars are driven singly or in heats of chords by damping selected strings. scious thought or intention. over a course including rough terrain or unmade (count noun an action roads. Compare with RALLYCROSS. autohypnosis performed unconsciously or involuntarily. An the N. Amer. a form noun (mass noun) induction of a hyp- notic state in oneself; self-hypnosis. of competition in which cars are driven around an avoidance of conscious intention in producing works of art, especially by using mechanical techniques or obstacle course, typically marked out by cones on an - DERIVATIVES autohypnotic adjective. autoimmune adjective Medicine relating to disease subconscious associations. empty car park. - ORIGIN 1960s: blend of AUTOMOBILE and CROSS-COUNTRY. caused by antibodies or lymphocytes produced - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from French automatisme, from automate automaton', from Greek automatos autocue noun trademark, Brit. a device which projects against substances naturally present in the body: the infection trigger's an autoimmune response. 'acting of itself' (see AUTOMATON). an enlarged image of a script on to a clear glass - DERIVATIVES autoimmunity noun. automatize /o:tomatarz/ (also automatise) verb screen in front of a person speaking on television autointoxication noun (mass noun] Medicine poison. or in public, so enabling the speaker to read their with obj.) (usu. as adj. automatized) make automatic speech while appearing to be looking at the viewers ing by a toxin formed within the body itself. or habitual: the need to refresh automatized forms of literature. or audience. autologous /7:'tpləgəs/ adjective (of cells or tis- - DERIVATIVES automatization noun. auto-da-fé / təuda:'fei/ noun (pl. autos-da-fé sues) obtained from the same individual. automaton 5:'tomat(ə)n/ noun (pl. automata/-ta/ 1,3:tuz.) the burning of a heretic by the Spanish autolysis (3:"tolisis/noun (mass noun) Biology the or automatons) a moving mechanical device made Inquisitions a sentence of such a kind. destruction of cells or tissues by their own enzymes, in imitation of a human being. na machine which - ORIGIN early 18th cent.: from Portuguese, literally especially those released by lysosomes. performs a range of functions according to a prede. 'act of the faith'. - DERIVATIVES autolytic adjective. termined set of coded instructions. autodial verb (autodials, autodialling, autodi automagically /ɔ:tə'madzikli/ adverb informal - ORIGIN early 17th cent.: via Latin from Greek, neu. alled; US autodials, autodialing, autodialed) Ino obj.] (especially in relation to the operation of a computer ter of automatos 'acting of itself', from autos'self'. VOWELS: a cat a: arm & bed E: hair ago a: her I sit i cosy i: see D hot: saw A runo putu: too AI my 0 detergent detritus 478 detergent noun a water-solubie ceansing 4-13 - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French detorsion /di'ty: f(a)n/ noun (mass noun) Zoology (in which combines with impurities and dirt to the determiner, from Latin determinare 'limit, fix', from gastropod molluscs) the evolutionary reversion of a them more soluble, and differs rom soap in nou de-'completely' + terminare 'terminate'. group to a primitive linear body plan. Compare with forming a scum with the salts in hardware determined adjective having made a firm decision TORSION. additive with a similar action to a cetergent, ES ait and being resolved not to change it: (with infinitive] detour noun a long or roundabout route that is oil-soluble substance which holds dirt in suspension Alina was determined to be heard. • possessing or taken to avoid something or to visit somewhere in lubricating oil. displaying resolve: Helen was a determined little girl along the way: he had made a detour to a cafe. man adjective relating to detergents or their action. a determined effort to reduce inflation. alternative route for use by traffic when the usual - DERIVATIVES detergence noun, detergency noun. - DERIVATIVES determinedly adverb, road is temporarily closed. - ORIGIN early 17th cent. (as an adjective): from Latin determinedness noun. verb (no obj., with adverbial of direction) chiefly N. Amer. take a detergent-'wiping away, from the verb detergere, determiner noun 1 a person or thing that deter- long or roundabout route: he detoured around the from de-away from' + tergere 'to wipe! walls. [with obj.) avoid by taking a detour: I would mines or decides something. deteriorate di'tioriereit/verb (no obj.] become detour the endless stream of motor homes. 2 Grammar a modifying word that determines the kind - ORIGIN mid 18th cent. (as a noun): from French progressively worse: relations between the countries of reference a noun or noun group has, for example had deteriorated sharply I (as adj. deteriorating) détour change of direction', from détourner 'turn a, the, every. See also ARTICLE. deteriorating economic conditions. away. determining adjective causing something to occur - DERIVATIVES deteriorative adjective. detox informal noun /di:toks/ Imass noun) detoxification: - ORIGIN late 16th cent. (in the sense 'make worse'): or be done in a particular way; serving to decide Te ended up in detox for three months. from late Latin deteriorat-'worsened', from the verb something: money may have been the determining verb /di:'toks/ detoxify. deteriorare, from Latin deterior 'worse. factor in his decision. detoxicate /di:'toksikeit/verb another term for deterioration noun (mass noun) the process of determinism noun (mass noun] Philosophy the doctrine DETOXIFY becoming progressively worse: a deterioration in the that all events, including human action, are ulti- - DERIVATIVES detoxication noun. condition of the patient. mately determined by causes regarded as external to - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from DE- (expressing the will. Some philosophers have taken determinism determinable adjective 1 able to be definitely removal) + Latin toxicum 'poison', on the pattern of to imply that individual human beings have no free decided or ascertained: a readily determinable intoxicate. will and cannot be held morally responsible for their market value. detoxification noun (mass noun the process of actions. 2 Law capable of being brought to an end under given removing toxic substances. medical treatment - DERIVATIVES determinist noun & adjective, conditions. of an alcoholic or drug addict involving abstention - ORIGIN late Middle English: via Old French from deterministic adjective, deterministically adverb. from drink or drugs until the bloodstream is free of late Latin determinabilis 'finite', from the verb deterrent /di'ter(ə)nt/ noun a thing that discourag- toxins. determinare (see DETERMINE). es or is intended to discourage someone from doing detoxify /di:'toksifai/ verb (detoxifies, detoxify. determinant /di'ta:minənt/ noun 1 a factor which something: cameras are a major deterrent to crime. ing, detoxified) (with obj.) remove toxic substances decisively affects the nature or outcome of some. Ha nuclear weapon or weapons system regarded as from: the process uses chemical reagents to detoxify thing: pure force of will was the main determinant deterring an enemy from attack. the oil. abstain or help to abstain from drink and of his success. Biology a gene or other factor which adjective able or intended to deter: the deterrent effect drugs until the bloodstream is free of toxins, in order determines the character and development of a of heavy prison sentences. to overcome alcoholism or drug addiction. (no obj. cell or cells in an organism, a set of which forms an - DERIVATIVES deterrence noun. become free of harmful substances: you can help individual's idiotype. - ORIGIN early 19th cent.: from Latin deterrent- 'deter- your body detoxify by cutting down on coffee. 2 Mathematics a quantity obtained by the addition of ring', from the verb deterrere (see DETER). - DERIVATIVES detoxifier noun. products of the elements of a square matrix accord detest verb (with obj.) dislike intensely: she really did - ORIGIN early 20th cent.: from DE- (expressing ing to a given rule. detest his mockery. removal) + Latin toxicum 'poison' +-FY. adjective serving to determine or decide something. - DERIVATIVES detester noun. detractverb (no obj.) (detract from) diminish the - ORIGIN early 17th cent.: from Latin determinant- - ORIGIN late 15th cent.: from Latin detestari, from de- worth or value of (a quality or achievement): these determining', from the verb deterniinare (see down' + testari'witness, call upon to witness' (from quibbles in no way detract from her achievement. DETERMINE). testis 'a witness'). (with obj.) take away (a specified amount) from the determinate ditə:minət/ adjective having exact detestable adjective deserving intense dislike: worth or value of a quality or achievement. and discernible limits or form: the longest determi. I found the film's violence detestable. - DERIVATIVES detraction noun, detractive adjective. nate prison sentence ever upheld by English courts. - DERIVATIVES detestably adverb. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Latin detract- Botany (of a flowering shoot) having the main axis - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French, or 'drawn away, from the verb detrahere, from de- ending in a flower bud and therefore no longer from Latin detestabilis, from the verb detestari (see "away from' + trahere draw'. extending in length, as in a cyme. DETEST). detractor noun a person who disparages someone - DERIVATIVES determinacy noun, determinately detestation /di:testeiſ(a)n/ noun (mass noun) intense or something. adverb, determinateness noun. dislike: Wordsworth's detestation of aristocracy. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Latin detrain verb leave or cause to leave a train. Icount noun) archaic a detested person or thing: he is the determinatus 'limited, determined', past participle - DERIVATIVES detrainment noun. of determinare (see DETERMINE). detestation of the neighbourhood. detribalize (also detribalise) verb (with obj.) (usu. - ORIGIN late Middle English: via Old French from determination noun (mass noun] 1 the quality of as adj. detribalized) remove (someone) from a tradi- Latin detestatio(n-), from the verb detestari (see being determined; firmness of purpose: those who tional tribal social structure. DETEST). succeed because of sheer grit and determination. - DERIVATIVES detribalization noun. 2 the process of establishing something exactly by dethroneverb (with obj.remove (a monarch) from detriment /'detrim(ə)nt/ noun (mass noun) the state of calculation or research: determination of molecular power. remove from a position of authority or being harmed or damaged: he is engrossed in his work structures. Law the settlement of a dispute by the dominance: he dethroned the defending title-holder. to the detriment of his married life light industry authoritative decision of a judge or arbitrator. (count - DERIVATIVES dethronement noun. can be carried out in a residential area without detri. noun) Law a judicial decision or sentence. detinue /detinju:/ noun (mass noun) Law the crime of ment to its amenities. (count noun) a cause of harm or 3 the controlling or deciding of the nature or out- wrongful detention of goods or personal possessions damage: such tests are a detriment to good education. come of something: genetic sex determination. (replaced in the UK by the tort of wrongful interfer- - ORIGIN late Middle English in the sense 'loss 4 Law the cessation of an estate or interest. ence of goods). sustained by damage': from Old French, from Latin 5 archaic a tendency to move in a fixed direction. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French detrimentum, from detri., stem of deterere'wear - ORIGIN late Middle English (in the senses 'settle- detenue, past participle (used as a noun) of detenir away'. ment of a controversy by a judge or by reasoning' and 'detain' detrimental adjective tending to cause harm: "authoritative opinion'): via Old French from Latin detonate /'detaneit/verb explode or cause to recent policies have been detrimental to the interests determinatio(n-), from the verb determinare (see explode: (no obj.) two other bombs failed to detonate of many old people moving her could have a detri. DETERMINE). [with obj.) a trigger that can detonate nuclear weapons. mental effect on her health. determinative /di'təzminativ/ adjective (predic.! - DERIVATIVES detonative adjective. - DERIVATIVES detrimentally adverb. chiefly Law serving to define, qualify, or direct: the - ORIGIN early 18th cent.: from Latin detonat-'thun detrition /di'triſ(ə)n/ noun (mass noun) rare the action employer's view is not determinative of the issue. dered down or forth', from the verb detonare, from of wearing something away by friction. noun Grammar another term for DETERMINER. de-down' + tonare 'to thunder'. - ORIGIN late 17th cent.: from medieval Latin determine di'tə: mın/verb (with obj.) 1 cause detonation noun (mass noun) the action of causing a detritio(n-), from detri-, stem of deterere'wear away'. (something) to occur in a particular way or to have a bomb or explosive device to explode. E count noun) a d etritivore /di'tritivo:/ noun Zoology an animal particular nature: it will be her mental attitude that loud explosion: a series of deafening detonations was which feeds on dead organic material, especially determines her future. heard. technical combustion of a substance which is plant detritus. 2 ascertain or establish exactly by research or initiated suddenly and propagates extremely rapidly, - DERIVATIVES detritivorous / detritiv(a)ras/ calculation: the inquest is entrusted with the task of giving rise to a shock wave. Compare with DEFLAGRA adjective determining the cause of death (with clause) the point of TION. the premature combustion of fuel in an - ORIGIN 1960s: from DETRITUS + -vore 'eating' (see our study was to determine what is true, not what is internal-combustion engine, causing pinking. -VOROUS). practicable. Mathematics specify the value, position, - ORIGIN late 17th cent.: from French détonation, or form of (a mathematical or geometrical object) detritus /di'traitəs/ noun (mass noun) waste or debris from the verb détoner, from Latin detonare'thunder uniquely. of any kind: the streets were foul with detritus. down' (see DETONATE). 3 Ino obj.) firmly decide: he determined on a with- gravel, sand, silt, or other material produced by drawal of his forces with infinitive) she determined to detonator noun a device or small sensitive charge erosion organic matter produced by the decompo- tackle Stephen the next day. used to detonate an explosive. Brit. another term for sition of organisms. 4 Law, archaic bring or come to an end. FOG SIGNAL - DERIVATIVES detrital adjective. CONSONANTS: b but d dog f few g get h he j yes k cat 1 leg m man n no p pen r red s sitt top v voice Case 6:18-cv.00080-ADA: Document 70- 6F 04/26/19 Page 8 of 10 763 grape hyacinth | grassbox - ORIGIN early 19th cent.: from GRAPE + FRUIT (probably because the fruits grow in clusters). grape hyacinth noun a small Eurasian plant of the lily family, with clusters of small globular blue flowers, cultivated as an ornamental or for use in perfume.. Genus Muscari, family Liliaceae. grape ivy noun an evergreen climbing plant of the vine family which is grown as a houseplant. • Genera Cissus and Rhoicissus, family Vitaceae: several species, in particular C. rhombifolia (or R. rhomboidea). grapeseed oil noun (mass noun oil extracted from the residue of grapes which have been juiced. grapeshotnoun (mass noun] historical ammunition con sisting of a number of small iron balls fired together from a cannon. grape sugar noun (mass noun) dextrose present in or derived from grapes. grapevine noun 1 a vine native to both Eurasia and North America, especially one bearing grapes used for eating or winemaking..Genus Vitis, family Vitaceae: many species, in particular V. vinifera and the American V.labrusca. 2 informal used to refer to the circulation of rumours and unofficial information: I'd heard on the grape. vine that the business was nearly settled. graph? /gra:f, graf/ noun a diagram showing the relation between variable quantities, typically of two variables, each measured along one of a pair of axes at right angles. Mathematics a collection of points whose coordinates satisfy a given relation. verb (with obj.1 plot or trace on a graph. - ORIGIN late 19th cent.: abbreviation of graphic formula. graph? /gra:f, graf/ noun Linguistics a visual symbol representing a unit of sound or other feature of speech. Graphs include not only letters of the alpha- bet but also punctuation marks. - ORIGIN 1930s: from Greek graphe 'writing! -graph combining form 1 in nouns denoting some. thing written or drawn in a specified way: autograph. 2 in nouns denoting an instrument that records: seismograph. - ORIGIN from French -graphe, based on Greek graphos 'written, writing'. grapheme 'grafi:m/ noun Linguistics the smallest meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system. Compare with PHONEME. - DERIVATIVES graphemic adjective,. - ORIGIN 1930s: from GRAPH? + -EME. -grapher combining form indicating a person concerned with a subject denoted by a noun ending in-graphy (such as geographer corresponding to geography). - ORIGIN from Greek -graphos 'writer' +-ER! graphic adjective 1 relating to visual art, especially involving drawing, engraving, or lettering: his mature graphic work. Computing relating to or denot. ing a visual image: graphic information such as charts and diagrams. 2 giving clear and vividly explicit details: a graphic account of the riots. 3 of or in the form of a graph. 4 [attrib. Geology of or denoting rocks having a surface texture resembling cuneiform writing. ► noun Computing a graphical item displayed on a screen or stored as data. - DERIVATIVES graphically adverb, graphicness noun. - ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: via Latin from Greek graphikos, from graphe 'writing, drawing'. -graphic combining form in adjectives corresponding to nouns ending in -graphy (such as demographic corresponding to demography). - DERIVATIVES -graphically combining form in corresponding adverbs. ORIGIN from or suggested by Greek -graphikos, from graphe 'writing, drawing': partly from -GRAPHY or -GRAPH + -IC. graphicacy / grafikasi/ noun (mass noun] the ability to understand and use a map or graph. -ORIGIN 1960s: from GRAPHIC, on the pattern of literacy and numeracy. graphical adjective 1 relating to or in the form of a graph. 2 relating to visual art or computer graphics. graphical combining form equivalent to -GRAPHIC. graphical user interface (abbrev.: GUI) ► noun Computing a visual way of interacting with a computer using items such as windows, icons, and menus, used by most modern operating systems. graphic arts > plural noun the visual arts based on the use of line and tone rather than three- dimensional work or the use of colour. (mass noun] (graphic art) the practice of graphic arts, especially as a subject of study. - DERIVATIVES graphic artist noun. graphic design noun (mass noun the art or skill of combining text and pictures in advertisements, magazines, or books. - DERIVATIVES graphic designer noun. graphic equalizer noun an electronic device or computer program which allows the separate control of the strength and quality of selected frequency bands. graphic novel noun a novel in comic strip format. graphics plural noun (usu, treated as sing.) 1 the products of the graphic arts, especially commercial design or illustration. 2 the use of diagrams in calculation and design. 3 (also computer graphics) (treated as pl.) visual images produced by computer processing. (treated as sing.) the use of computers linked to display screens to generate and manipulate visual images. graphics card noun Computing a printed circuit board that controls the output to a display screen. graphics tablet noun Computing an input device consisting of a flat, pressure-sensitive pad which the user draws on or points at with a special stylus, to guide a pointer displayed on the screen. graphite noun (mass noun) a grey crystalline allotropic form of carbon which occurs as a mineral in some rocks and can be made from coke. It is used as a solid lubricant, in pencils, and as a moderator in nuclear reactors. - DERIVATIVES graphitic adjective. - ORIGIN late 18th cent.: coined in German (Graphit), from Greek graphein'write' (because of its use as pencil'lead'). graphitize / grafitaiz/ (also graphitise) verb technical convert or be converted into graphite. - DERIVATIVES graphitization noun. graphology noun (mass noun] 1 the study of handwriting, for example as used to infer a person's character 2 linguistics the study of written and printed symbols and of writing systems. - DERIVATIVES graphological adjective, graphologist noun. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from Greek graphi'writ- ing' +-LOGY. graph paper noun (mass noun) paper printed with a network of small squares to assist the drawing of graphs or other diagrams. graph theory noun (mass noun the mathematical theory of the properties and applications of graphs. -graphy combining form in nouns denoting: 1 a descriptive science: geography. 2 a technique of producing images: radiography. 3 a style or method of writing or drawing: calligra- phy. - writing about (a specified subject): hagiogra. phy. a written or printed list: filmography. - ORIGIN from or suggested by Greek .graphia 'writing grapnel l'grapn(a)l/ noun 1 a grappling hook. 2 a small anchor with several flukes. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from an Anglo-Norman French diminutive of Old French grapon, of Ger manic origin. grappa /'grapa/ noun (mass noun) a brandy distilled from the fermented residue of grapes after they have been pressed in winemaking. - ORIGIN Italian, literally 'grape stalk', of Germanic origin. Grappelli /grapeli/, Stephane (1908-97), French jazz violinist. With Django Reinhardt, he founded the group the Quintette du Hot Club de France in 1934. grappleverb 1 [no obj.) engage in a close fight or struggle without weapons; wrestle: passers-by grappled with the man after the knife attack. (with obj.) seize hold of (someone): he grappled the young man around the throat. * (grapple with) struggle to deal with or overcome (a difficulty or challenge): other towns are still grappling with the problem. 2 [with obj.) archaic seize or hold with a grappling hook. noun 1 an act of grappling. informal a wrestling match. 2 an instrument for seizing hold of something; a grappling hook. - DERIVATIVES grappier noun. - ORIGIN Middle English (as a noun denoting a grappling hook): from Old French grapil, from Provençal, diminutive of grapa 'hook', of Germanic origin; related to GRAPE. The verb dates from the mid 16th cent. grappling hook (also grappling iron) noun a device with iron claws, attached to a rope and used for dragging or grasping. graptolite / graptəlat/ noun a fossil marine inver- tebrate animal of the Palaeozoic era, forming mainly planktonic colonies and believed to be related to the pterobranchs. Class Graptolithina, phylum Hemichordata. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from Greek graptos 'marked with letters' + -LITE: so named because of the impres- sions left on hard shales, resembling markings with a slate pencil. Grasmere /'gra:smia/ a village in Cumbria, beside a small lake of the same name; pop. 1,000 (est. 2009). William and Dorothy Wordsworth lived there from 1799. grasp /gra:sp/verb (with obj. seize and hold firmly: she grasped the bottle Edward grasped her by the wrist. take an opportunity) eagerly: many companies grasped the opportunity to expand. 1 comprehend fully: the press failed to grasp the significance of what had happened. ► noun (in sing.) a firm hold or grip: the child slipped from her grasp. a person's power or capacity to attain something: he knew success was within his person's understanding: meanings that are beyond my grasp his grasp of detail. - PHRASES grasp at straws see STRAW. grasp the nettle Brit. tackle a difficulty boldly. [because a nettle stings when touched lightly, but not when grasped firmly.) - DERIVATIVES graspable adjective, grasper noun. - ORIGIN late Middle English: perhaps related to GROPE. grasping adjective avaricious; greedy: they were regarded as grasping landlords. - DERIVATIVES graspingly adverb, graspingness noun. Grass /gra:s, gras/, Günter (Wilhelm) (b.1927), Ger- man novelist, poet, and dramatist. Notable works: The Tin Drum (novel, 1959) and The Flounder (novel, 1977). He was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize for Literature. grass noun 1 (mass noun) vegetation consisting of typi- cally short plants with long, narrow leaves, growing wild or cultivated on lawns and pasture, and as a fodder crop.ground covered with grass. pasture land: the farms were mostly given over to grass. 2 a mainly herbaceous plant with jointed stems and spikes of small wind-pollinated flowers, predominant in grass. Grasses belong to the large family Gramineae (or Poaceae; the grass family), and form the dominant vegetation of many areas of the world. The possession of a growing point that is mainly at ground level makes grasses suitable as the food of many grazing animals, and for use in lawns and playing fields. 3 (mass noun) informal cannabis. 4 Brit. informal a police informer. [perhaps related to the 19th-cent. rhyming slang grasshopper'copper'.) verb (with obj.) 1 cover (an area of ground) with grass: the railway tracks were mostly grassed over. US feed (livestock) on grass. 2 Brit. informal inform the police of someone's criminal activities or plans: (no obj.] someone had grassed on the thieves ! (with obj.) she threatened to grass me up. 3 catch and bring (a fish) to the riverbank. 4 chiefly Rugby & Australian Rules knock (someone) down. - PHRASES at grass grazing. the grass is always greener on the other side (of the fence) proverb other people's lives or situations always seem better than your own. not let the grass grow under one's feet not delay in acting or taking an opportunity. put out to grass put an animal) out to graze. informal force (someone) to retire. - DERIVATIVES grassless adjective, grass-like adjective. - ORIGIN Old English græs, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch gras, German Gras, also ultimately to GREEN and GROW. grassbird noun a brown streaked warbler frequent ing long grass and reed beds. Family Sylviidae: genus Megalurus of Australasia and Asia (also called MARSHBIRD), and Sphenoeacus afer of southern Africa. grassbox noun a rigid receptacle on a lawnmower for collecting the cut grass. SONANTS (continued): w we z zoo, she 3 decision thind this y ring x loch ts chip dz jar (see over for vowels) 0 pre-tension | pre-vocational 1407 2 (mass noun) the use of affectation to impress; preten- tiousness: he spoke simply, without pretension. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from medieval Latin praetensio(n.), from praetens-'alleged'. from the verb praetendere (see PRETEND). pre-tension verb (with obj.) apply tension to (an object) before manufacture or use. strengthen (reinforced concrete) by applying tension to the reinforcing rods before the concrete has set. DERIVATIVES pre-tensioner noun. pretentious adjective attempting to impress by affecting greater importance or merit than is actu- ally possessed: pretentious art films | the pretentious jargon of wine experts. - DERIVATIVES pretentiously adverb, pretentious. ness noun. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from French prétentieux, from prétention (see PRETENSION). preter- / prita/ combining form more than: preter natural. - ORIGIN from Latin praeter past, beyond'. preterite /'pret(ə)rit/ (US also preterit) Grammar adjective expressing a past action or state. noun a simple past tense or form. - ORIGIN Middle English (in the sense 'bygone, former'): from Latin praeteritus gone by, past participle of praeterire, from praeter past, beyond' + ire'go'. preterition / prita'rif(n/ noun (mass noun the action of passing over or disregarding a matter, espe. cially the rhetorical technique of making summary mention of something by professing to omit it. - ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from late Latin praeteritio(n.), from praeterire 'pass, go by'. preterm Medicine adjective born or occurring after a pregnancy significantly shorter than normal, espe. cially after no more than 37 weeks of pregnancy. adverb after a short pregnancy; prematurely: babies born preterm are likely to lack surfactant in the lungs. pretermit /.pri:ta'mit/verb (pretermits, preter- mitting, pretermitted) (with obj.) archaic 1 omit to do or mention: some points of conduct we advisedly pretermit. 2 abandon (a custom or continuous action) for a time: the pleasant musical evenings were now entirely pretermitted. - DERIVATIVES pretermission /-'mif(ə)n/ noun. - ORIGIN late 15th cent.: from Latin praetermittere, from praeter past, beyond' + mittere 'let go'. preternatural /pri:ta'natsər(ə)1/(also praeternat- ural) adjective beyond what is normal or natural: autumn had arrived with preternatural speed. - DERIVATIVES preternaturally adverb. pretest noun a preliminary test or trial. verb (with obj./ carry out a preliminary test or trial of: prior to its use, the questionnaire was pretested on two groups of trainees. pretext noun a reason given in justification of a course of action that is not the real reason: the rebels had the perfect pretext for making their move he called round on the pretext of asking after her mother. - ORIGIN early 16th cent.: from Latin praetextus 'out- ward display, from the verb praetexere 'to disguise', from prae 'before' + texere 'weave'. pretornoun US spelling of PRAETOR. Pretoria /pritɔ:rra/ the administrative capital of South Africa; pop. 1,679,200 (est. 2009). It was founded in 1855 by Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (1819-1901), the first President of the South African Republic, and named after his father Andries. pretorian adjective & noun US spelling of PRAETORIAN. Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging fa'ri:nikiŋ/ former name (until 1995) for GAUTENG. pretreat verb (with obj.) treat (something) with a chemical before use. - DERIVATIVES pretreatment noun. pretrial adjective in or relating to the period before a judicial trial: a pretrial hearing. prettify verb (prettifies, prettifying, prettified) (with obj. make (someone or something) appear super ficially pretty or attractive: nothing has been done to prettify the site. - DERIVATIVES prettification noun, prettifier noun. pretty adjective (prettier, prettiest) 1 (of a person, especially a woman or child) attractive in a delicate way without being truly beautiful: a pretty little girl with an engaging grin. (of a thing) pleasing to the eye or the ear: a pretty summer dress. 2 (attrib.) informal used ironically to express annoyance or displeasure: he led me a pretty dance. adverb (as submodifier) informal to a moderately high degree; fairly: he looked pretty fit for his age. ► noun (pl. pretties) informal an attractive thing, espe- cially a trinket: he buys her lots of pretties-bangles and rings. used to refer in a condescending way to an attractive person: six pretties in sequined leotards. verb (pretties, prettying, prettied) (with obj.) make pretty or attractive: she'll be all prettied up and ready to go in an hour. - PHRASES pretty much (or nearly or well) informal very nearly: the case is pretty well over. a pretty penny informal a large sum of money, pretty please used as a wheedling form of request. be sitting pretty informal be in an advantageous situation: if she could get sponsors, she would be sitting pretty. - DERIVATIVES prettily adverb, prettiness noun, prettyish adjective. - ORIGIN Old English prættig; related to Middle Dutch pertich 'brisk, clever', obsolete Dutch prettig 'humorous, sporty', from a West Germanic base meaning 'trick'. The sense development 'deceitful, cunning, clever, skilful, admirable, pleasing, nice' has parallels in adjectives such as canny, fine, nice, etc. pretty boy noun informal, often derogatory a foppish or effeminate man. pretty-face wallaby noun another term for WHIPTAIL WALLABY. pretzel /'prets(ə)/ noun a crisp biscuit baked in the form of a knot or stick and flavoured with salt. verb (pretzels, pretzeling, pretzeled) (with obj.] N. Amer. twist, bend, or contort: he found the snake pretzeled into a tangle of knots. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent. (originally US): from German Pretzel. prevail verb (no obj.] 1 prove more powerful or superior: it is hard for logic to prevail over emotion. be widespread or current in a particular area or at a particular time: a friendly atmosphere prevailed among the crowds. 2 (prevail on/upon) persuade (someone) to do something: she was prevailed upon to give an account of her work. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Latin praevalere "have greater power', from prae 'before' + valere 'have power'. prevailing ► noun existing at a particular time; current: the unfavourable prevailing economic condi- tions. having most appeal or influence; prevalent: the prevailing mood within Whitehall circles. - DERIVATIVES prevailingly adverb. prevailing wind noun a wind from the direction that is predominant or most usual at a particular place or season. prevalence noun (mass noun the fact or condition of being prevalent; commonness: the prevalence of obesity in adults. prevalent 'prev(a)l(ə)nt/ adjective (attrib.) wide- spread in a particular area or at a particular time: the social ills prevalent in society today. archaic predomi. nant; powerful. - DERIVATIVES prevalently adverb. - ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from Latin praevalent-'hav- ing greater power', from the verb praevalere (see PREVAIL). prevaricate /pri'vartkeit/verb (no obj.) speak or act in an evasive way: he seemed to prevaricate when journalists asked pointed questions. - DERIVATIVES prevarication noun, prevaricator noun. - ORIGIN mid 16th cent. (earlier (Middle English) as prevarication and prevaricator), in the sense'go astray, transgress': from Latin praevaricat-'walked crookedly, deviated', from the verb praevaricari, from prae 'before' + varicari'straddle'. prevenient privi:niənt/ adjective formal preceding in time or order; antecedent. - ORIGIN early 17th cent.: from Latin praevenient- coming before' from the verb praevenire, from prae 'before' + venire come'. prevent verb (with obj./ 1 keep (something) from happening: action must be taken to prevent further accidents. Stop (someone) from doing something: locks won't prevent a determined burglar from get. ting in. 2 archaic (of God) go before (someone) with spiritual guidance and help. - DERIVATIVES preventability noun, preventable (also preventible) adjective. - ORIGIN late Middle English (in the sense 'act in anticipation of): from Latin praevent-'preceded, hindered, from the vero praevenire, from prae "before' + ienire 'cene. preventative adjective & noun another term for PREVENTIVE. - DERIVATIVES preventatively adverb. preventer noun a person or thing that prevents something: a power-surge preventer. Sailing an extra line or wire rigged to support a piece of rigging under strain, or to hold the boom and prevent it from gybing prevention noun (mass noun) the action of stopping something from happening or arising: crime preven- tion the treatment and prevention of AIDS. - PHRASES prevention is better than cure (or US an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure) proverb it's easier to stop something happening in the first place than to repair the damage after it has happened. preventive adjective designed to keep something undesirable such as illness or harm from occurring: preventive medicine. ► noun a medicine or other treatment designed to prevent disease or ill health. - DERIVATIVES preventively adverb. preventive detention noun (mass noun) Law the imprisonment of a person with the aim of preventing them from committing further offences or of main- taining public order. preverbal adjective 1 existing or occurring before the development of speech: preverbal communi- cation. 2 Grammar occurring before a verb: preverbal particles. preview noun an opportunity to view something before it is acquired or becomes generally available: I have photos of the goods if anyone would like a pre- view. a showing of a film, exhibition, etc. before its official opening. 1 a trailer for a film. a publicity article or review of a forthcoming film, book, etc., based on an advance viewing. Computing a facility for inspecting the appearance of a document before it is printed. verb (with obj.) display (a product, film, etc.) before it is made generally available: the company will preview an enhanced version of its database. see or inspect (something) before it is used or becomes generally available: the teacher should preview teaching aids to ensure that they are at the right level. - comment on (a forthcoming event): next week we'll be previewing the new season. - DERIVATIVES previewer noun. Previn /'previn/, André (George) (b.1929), German- born American conductor, pianist, and composer. He is most famous as a conductor, notably with the London Symphony Orchestra (1968-79), the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (1976-86), and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra (1987-91). previous adjective 1 (attrib.) existing or occurring before in time or order: she looked tired after her exertions of the previous evening the boat's previous owner. 2 informal overhasty in acting: I admit I may have been a bit previous noun (mass noun) Brit. informal previous convictions; a crim- inal record: he's got previous-theft and wounding. - PHRASES previous to before: the month previous to publication. - ORIGIN early 17th cent.: from Latin praevius 'going before' (from prae 'before' + via 'way') + -OUS. previously adverb at a previous or earlier time; before: museums and art galleries which had previ. ously been open to the public they discovered a previously unknown gene. previous question noun (in parliamentary procedure) a motion to decide whether to vote on a main question, moved before the main question itself is put. previse /pri'VAIZ/ verb (with obj. literary foresee or predict (an event): he had intelligence to previse the possible future. - DERIVATIVES prevision noun, previsional adjective. - ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from Latin praevis-'foreseen, anticipated', from the verb praevidere, from prae 'before' + videre 'to see'. prevocalic/pri:vəkalık/ adjective occurring imme- diately before a vowel. pre-vocational adjective given or performed as preparation for vocational training. CONSONANTS (continued): w we z zoo she 3 decision thin d this ŋ ring x loch ts chip dz jar (see over for vowels) . 0 re-present | reprogram raehendere (see REPREHEND). The ** BA SU constituency or party): she became the first woman to represent a South Wales mining valley, act as a substitute for (someone), especially on an official occasion: the Duke of Edinburgh was represented by the Countess Mountbatten. 2 constitute; amount to: this figure represents eleven per cent of the company's total sales. be a specimen or example of; typify: twenty parents, picked to repre- sent a cross section of Scottish life. - (be represented) be present in something to a particular degree: abstraction is well represented in this exhibition. 3 depict (a particular subject) in a work of art: santos are small wooden figures representing saints. [with obj. and adverbial or infinitivel describe or portray in a par- ticular way: the young were consistently represented as being in need of protection. (of a sign or symbol) have a particular signification; stand for: numbers 1-15 represent the red balls. be a symbol or embodi- ment of: the three heads of Cerberus represent the past, present, and future, play (a role) in a theatri- cal production. 4 formal state or point out clearly: it was represented to him that she would be an unsuitable wife. - (with clause) allege; claim: the vendors have represented that such information is accurate. - DERIVATIVES representability noun, represent able adjective. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French representer or Latin repraesentare, from re- (express- ing intensive force) + praesentare'to present. re-present verb (with obj.) present (something) again, especially for further consideration or in an altered form: I will re-present Eikmeyer's model here. pres- ent (a cheque or bill) again for payment. - DERIVATIVES re-presentation noun. representation noun (mass noun] 1 the action of speaking or acting on behalf of someone or the state of being so represented: you may qualify for free legal representation. 2 the description or portrayal of someone or something in a particular way: the representation of women in newspapers. the depiction of someone or something in a work of art: Picasso is striving for some absolute representation of reality. (count noun) a picture, model, or other depiction of someone or something: a striking representation of a vase of flowers. 1 (in some theories of perception) a mental state or concept regarded as corresponding to a thing perceived. 3 (representations) formal statements made to an authority, especially so as to communicate an opin. ion or register a protest: the Law Society will make representations to the Lord Chancellor. (count noun) a statement or allegation: any buyer was relying on a representation that the tapes were genuine. - ORIGIN late Middle English (in the sense 'image, likeness'): from Old French representation or Latin repraesentation-), from repraesentare 'bring before, exhibit' (see REPRESENT). representational adjective relating to or char- acterized by representation: representational democ racy. relating to or denoting art which aims to depict the physical appearance of things. Contrasted with ABSTRACT - DERIVATIVES representationally adverb. representationalism noun (mass noun) 1 the prac- tice or advocacy of representational art. 2 Philosophy another term for REPRESENTATIONISM. - DERIVATIVES representationalist adjective & noun. representationism noun (mass noun) Philosophy the doctrine that thought is the manipulation of mental representations which correspond to external states or objects. - DERIVATIVES representationist noun. representative adjective 1 typical of a class, group, or body of opinion: Churchill was not properly representative of influential opinion in Britain. containing typical examples of many or all types: a representative sample of young people in Scotland. 2 (of a legislative assembly or deliberative body) consisting of people chosen to act and speak on behalf of a wider group. (of a government or politi- cal system) based on elected or chosen representa tives: free elections and representative democracy. 3 serving as a portrayal or symbol of something: the show would be more representative of how women really are. (of art) representational: the bust involves a high degree of representative abstraction, 4 Philosophy relating to mental representation. noun 1 a person chosen or appointed to act or speak for another or others, in particular: x an agent of a firm who travels to potential clients to sell its prod- ucts. kan employee of a travel company who lives in a resort and looks after the needs of its holidaymak ers. w a person chosen or elected to speak and act on behalf of others in a legislative assembly or delibera- tive body. - a delegate who attends a conference, negotiations, etc., so as to represent the interests of another person or group. ~ a person who takes the place of another on an official occasion. 2 an example of a class or group: fossil representa- tives of lampreys and hagfishes. - DERIVATIVES representatively adverb, representa tiveness noun. repress verb (with obj.) subdue (someone or something) by force: the uprisings were repressed. restrain, prevent, or inhibit (the expression or development of something): Isabel couldn't repress a sharp cry of fear. - suppress (a thought or desire) so that it becomes or remains unconscious: the thought that he had killed his brother was so terrible that he repressed it. Biology prevent the transcription of (a gene). - DERIVATIVES represser noun, repressible adjective. - ORIGIN Middle English (in the sense 'keep back something objectionable'): from Latin repress- 'pressed back, checked', from the verb reprimere, from re- 'back' + premere 'to press'. repressed adjective restrained or oppressed: repressed indigenous groups. (of a thought or desire) kept suppressed and unconscious in one's mind: repressed homosexuality. n characterized by the repression of thoughts or desires, especially sexual ones: a very repressed, almost Victorian, household. repression noun (mass noun] the action of subduing someone or something by force. W the restraint, pre- vention, or inhibition of a feeling, quality, etc.: the repression of anger can be positively harmful, the action or process of suppressing a thought or desire in oneself so that it remains unconscious. repressive adjective (especially of a social or politi- cal system) inhibiting or restraining personal free- dom: a repressive regime. . inhibiting or preventing the expression or awareness of thoughts or desires: a repressive moral code. -- DERIVATIVES repressively adverb, repressiveness noun. repressor noun Biochemistry a substance which acts on an operon to inhibit enzyme synthesis. reprice verb (with obj.) put a different price on (a product or commodity). reprieve verb (with obj.) cancel or postpone the punishment of (someone, especially someone con- demned to death): under the new regime, prisoners under sentence of death were reprieved. abandon or postpone plans to close or abolish (something): the threatened pits could be reprieved. noun a cancellation or postponement of a punish- ment. va cancellation or postponement of an undesirable event: a mother who faced eviction has been given a reprieve. ORIGIN late 19th cent. (as the past participle repryed): from Anglo-Norman French repris, past participle of reprendre, from Latin re- 'back' + prehendere'seize'. The insertion of -v- (16th cent.) remains unexplained. Sense development has under- gone a reversal, from the early meaning 'send back to prison', via 'postpone a legal process', to the current sense 'rescue from impending punishment'. reprimand /'reprima:nd/ noun a formal expression of disapproval. verb (with obj.) address a reprimand to: officials were reprimanded for poor work. - ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: from French réprimande, via Spanish from Latin reprimenda, 'things to be held in check', neuter plural gerundive of reprimere (see REPRESS). reprint verb (with obj.) print again or in a different form: his book was reprinted several times after his death. noun an act of printing more copies of a copy of a book or other material that has been reprinted. an offprint. - DERIVATIVES reprinter noun. reprisal noun an act of retaliation: three youths died in the reprisals which followed (mass noun) the threat of reprisal. (mass noun) historical the forcible seizure of a foreign subject or their goods as an act of retaliation. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French reprisaille, from medieval Latin reprisalia (neuter plural), based on Latin repraehens-'seized', from the verb repraehendere (see REPREHEN current sense dates from the early 18th reprise /ri'priz/ noun a repeated passage in a repetition or further performance of something a stale reprise of past polemic. verb (with obj.] repeat (a piece of music oras performance). - ORIGIN early 18th cent.: French, literally taken again', feminine past participle of reprendre (see REPRIEVE) repronoun (pl. repros) (usu. as modifier) informal 1 W reproduction or copy, particularly of a piece of ture: a Georgian repro cabinet. 2 (mass noun) the reproduction of a document or image: in-house repro and some finishing. reproach verb (with obj.] express to (someone) one disapproval of or disappointment in their actions her friends reproached her for not thinking enough about her family (with direct speech] 'You know that isn't true,'he reproached her. (reproach someone with accuse someone of his wife reproached him with cowardice. - archaic censure or rebuke (and offence). noun (mass nounſ the expression of disapproval or disappointment: he gave her a look of reproach count noun) a farrago of warnings and pained reproaches (a reproach to a thing that makes the failings of someone or something else) more apparents elegance is a living reproach to our slovenly habits (Reproaches) (in the Roman Catholic Church) a set of antiphons and responses for Good Friday rep resenting the reproaches of Christ to his people, - PHRASES above (or beyond) reproach such thatin criticism can be made; perfect. - DERIVATIVES reproachable adjective, reproaching. us adjective, reproachingly adverb. - ORIGIN Middle English: from Old French reprochier (verb), from a base meaning 'bring back close' based on Latin prope'near'. reproachful adjective expressing disapproval or disappointment: she gave him a reproachful - DERIVATIVES reproachfully adverb, reproachfül ness noun. reprobate /'reprobert/ noun 1 an unprincipled 12 person. 2 archaic (in Calvinism) a sinner who is not of the elect and is predestined to damnation. ► adjective 1 unprincipled: reprobate behaviour. E 2 archaic (in Calvinism) predestined to damnation. 17 verb (with obj.) archaic express or feel disapproval of his neighbours reprobated his method of proceeding. - DERIVATIVES reprobation noun... - Origin late Middle English (as a verb): from Latina reprobat-'disapproved', from the verb reprobareu from re- (expressing reversal) + probare 'approve reprocess verb (with obj.) process (something, my especially spent nuclear fuel) again or differently, typically in order to reuse it. reproduce verb (with obj. 1 produce a copy of his works are reproduced on postcards and posterssbor (no obj., with adverbiall be copied with a specifieds degree of success: you'll be amazed to see how well half-tones reproduce, produce something very similar to (something else) in a different medium orn context: the problems are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. 2 (of an organism) produce offspring by a sexual or asexual process: bacteria normally divide and reproduce themselves every twenty minutes l'Ino'obj: an individual needs to avoid being eaten until it has reproduced. - DERIVATIVES reproducer noun, reproducibility noun, reproducible adjective, reproducibly adverb reproduction noun (mass noun) 1 the action or process of copying something: the cost of colour X reproduction in publication is high. [count noun an copy of a work of art, especially a print or photo graph of a painting. * (as modifier) made to imitate the style of an earlier period or of a particular craftsmans reproduction French classical beds. the quality reproduced sound: the design was changed to allowa louder reproduction. 2 the production of offspring by a sexual or asexuar process. reproductive adjective relating to or effecting reproduction: the female reproductive system. - DERIVATIVES reproductively adverb, reproductive ness noun, reproductivity noun. reprogram (also reprogramme) verb (repro grams, reprogramming, reprogrammed; US a reprograms, reprograming, reprogramed) W aru W is We VOWELS: a cat a: arm & bed & hair e ago ə: her i sit i cosy i see photo: saw A run u putu: too Al my 0.0001