Match Group, LLC v. Bumble Trading Inc.

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2018-cv-00080

Exhibit 5

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0 Exhibit 5 0 0 OXFORD VNIVBUITY PR.BSS Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6DP Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford NewYork Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in Argentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France Greece Guatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal Singapore South Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries © Oxford University Press 1998, 2003, 2005, 2010 Database right Oxford University Press (makers) First edition 1998 Second edition 2003 Second edition, revised 2005 Third edition 2010 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press. at the address above You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Data available Typeset in Parable, Frutiger, and OUP Argo by Datagrafix, Inc. Printed in Italy by L.E.G.0. S.p.A., Lavis (TN) ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 4253001741119747 0 All Ordinaries index I ally 44 All Ordinaries index (on the Australian stock 2 a sum of money paid re.;L~l:lr~~· to~ pt: rS•Jli w meet 2 a tree of the myrtle family from which allspice exchanges) an index based on the weight ed average needs or expenses: tl-1c elder!.'' n.•cc11·e .1 hearing allow- is obtained. Also called PIMENTO or JAMAICA PEPPER. A of selected ordin ary share prices. ance every winter. • d 11.:fn I .:.r-::·_zi small <'!mount of • Pimenta dioica, family Myrtaceae. allosaur u s /,ala'so:ras/ •noun a large bipedal car· money given regular!} to a child by its pc..rc:11ts. 3 an aron1ati c North American tree or shrub. •Genus nivorous dinosaur of the late Jurassic period. •Genus 3 [mass nounJ archaic toleran:~: 1i1e n.l!!" i!UEU: of ilavery Calycanthus, famil y Calycanthaceae. Aflosaurus, suborder Theropoda, order Saurischia. in the Soucli. all-star • adjective !attrib.I composed wholly of out· - ORIGIN modern Latin, from Greek a/los'other'+ •verb [v.oth obj.I archaic give (someone) a sum of money as standing performers or players: an all·star cast. sar.ffoS ' lizar d'. an allowance. •noun N.Amer. a member of an a ll·star group or t eam. - PHRASES make allowance(s) for 1 take into a llosteric /,ala's!Enk, ·'shank/ • adjective Biochemisny Allston / 'o:lst(a)n/, Washington (1779- 1843), Amer- consideration when planning something. 2 treat ican landscape painter, the first major artist of t he relating to or denoting the alteration of the activity leniently on account of mitigating circumstances. of an .enzyme by means of a conformational change American romantic movement. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French induced by a different molecule. alo11ance, from alouer (see ALLow). all-terrain vehicle •noun a small open motor allot• verb (allots, allotting, allotted) [with obj.j give veh icle with o ne seat and t h ree or mo re wheels fitted alloxan /a'lnks(a)n/ •noun Imass nounj Chemistry an acidic w ith large tyres, designed for use on rough ground. o r apportion (something) to someone: equal time compound obtained by the oxidation of uric acid was allotted to eaclz [ [with two objsJ I was allotted a little and isolated as an efflorescent crystalline hydrate. all-ticket • adjective denoting an event, especially a mom in the servant's block. •Chem. formula: C4 H2 N2 0 4 • sports match, for which spectators must buy t ickets - ORIGIN lat e 15th cent.: from Old Fren ch aloter, from - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from all(antoin) + ox(alic) + in advance. a· (from Latin ad 'to')+ loter'divide into lots'. · AN. all-time• adjective !attri b.J unsurpassed: herall·time allotment• noun 1 Brit a plot of land rented by an alloy• noun /'alo2/ a metal made by combining two or favourite I interest rates liit an all-time h igli. individual for growing vegetables or flowers. • US, more metallic elements, especially to give greater allude• verb [no obJ.J (allude to) suggest or call atten· chiefly historical a piece of land made over by the govern· strength or res istance to corrosion: an alloy of nickel, tion to indirectly; hint at: sl1e had a way of alluding to ment to an America n Indian. bronze, and zinc Ilas modifier! alloy wheels. • an inferior jean but never saying l1er name. • mention without 2 Imass noun! t he action of allotting something. 11 lcoum metal mixed with a precious on e. discu ssing at length: we will allude briefly to the main nounJ an amount allotted to a person. • verb /a'lo2/ lwith obj.I mix (metals) to make an alloy: points.• (of an artist o r a work of art) recall (an allotrope f'alatraup/ • noun Chemistry each of two or alloying tin witli copper to make bronze. earlier work or style) in such a way as to suggest a more different physical forms in which an element - ORIG! N late 16th cent.: from Old French aloi (noun) relationship with it. can exist. Graphite, ch a rcoal, a n d diamon d are all and French aloyer (verb), bot h from Old French - ORIGIN late 15th cent. (in the sense 'hint at, allot ropes of carbon. aloier, aleie1· 'combine', from Latin alligare 'bind'. In suggest'): from Latin all11s·, alludere, from ad· - ORIGIN late 19th cent.: back-formation from early u se t he t e rm denoted the comparative purity of 'towards'+ ludere 'to play'. ALLOTROPY. gold or silver; t he sense 'mixture of metals' arose in all-up weight• noun chiefly Brit t he total weight of an allotropy /a'lotI·api/ • noun [mass nounj Chemistry the t he mid 17th cent. aircraft with passengers, cargo, a n d fuel. existence of two or more different physical forms of all-party •adjective lattrib.J Brit involving all political allure • noun [mass noun! the quality of being power· a chemical element. parties: tl1e measure received all-party support. fully and myst eriou sly attractive or fascinating: - DERIVATIVES allotropic adjective. all-pervasive (also all-pervading) • adjective occur· peoplefonvliom gold holds no allure. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from Greek allotrnpos'of ring or having an effect through or into every part of • verb !with obj.J powerfully attract or charm; tempt: will another form', from allo· 'ot her'+ cropos 'manner' something: tile all·pervasive excitement. sponson really be allured by mcl1 opportu nities? (from trepei n 'to rnrn'). - DERIVATIVES allurement noun. all-poi n ts bulletin (abbrev.: APB) • noun (in t h e - ORIGI N late Middle English (in the sense'tempt, a llottee •noun a person to whom something is allot· US) a radio message sent t o every officer in a police ted, especially land or shares. en tice'): from Old French ale11rier 'attract', from force givin g details of a suspected criminal or stolen a· (from Latin ad 'to')+ luere 'a lure' (originally a all-over • adjective lattrib.J covering the whole of some· vehicle. thin g: slle retu rned with an all·over tan. falconri• term). a ll-powerful •adjective having complete power: an alluring .,. adjective powerfully and mysteriously allow •verb [with obj.[ 1 let (someone) have or do all·powe1ful dictator. someth ing: !with obj. and iniinitivej tile dissident was attractive or fasci n ating; seductive: the town offers a ll-purpose • adjective having a great many uses: an alluring slwps and restaurants. allowed to leave the country I [with two objsj she was all·p11rpose kitcl1en knife. - DERIVATI VES alluringly adverb. allowed a higher profile. • lwith obj. and adverbial of direc- tion! let (someone) ente r a place or go in a particular all right• adjective lpredic.I o f a satisfactory or accept· a llus /'o:Jaz, 'alaz/ •adverb non-standard spelling of direction: tile river was pat rolled and few people were able q ua lit y: the tea was all riglic. • in a s atisfactory ALWAYS. allowed across. • declare or decide that (an event or mental or physical state: do you feel all right to walk - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: representing a regional act ivity) is lega l or acceptable: political advenising Imme? • per missible; allowable: it's all right for yo11 pronunciation. on television is not allowed. to go11ow. allusion • noun an expression designed to call some· 2 give the necessary time or opportunity for: t/Jey • adverb 1 in a satisfactory manner or to a satisfactory thing to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an agreed to a ceasefire to allow talks wit/J tile govern- extent; fairly w ell: we get on all rigl1t. indirect or passing ref erence: an allusion to Sliake· ment I !with obj. and infinitive! lie stopped to allow l1is 2 used to emphasize how certain one is about some· spem·e I a classical allusion. • lmass nounJ the practice eyes co adjust. • lno obj.J (allow for) make provision th ing: 'Are you sure it's liim?' 'It's /1i111 all rig/le.' of making allusions. or provide scope for: the house was tlemolislied to,.. exclamation expr essing or asking for assent, agree· - OR IGtN mid 16th cen t. (denoting a pun, meta· allow fo r road w idening. • !no obj.I (allow for) take ment, or acceptance: all right, I'll tell you. phor, o r parable): from French, or from late Latin (somet hing) into consideration when making plans - PHRASES it's all right for- - used to suggest allusio(n-), from t he verb alludere (see ALLUDE). or calculations: income rose by 11 per cent allowing that someone is luckier than you: it was all rig/Jt for tl1em! Tiiey didn't Ii ave to put up with tl1e brat allusive • adjective using or containing suggestion fo r inflation. • provide or set aside for a pa rticular rather than explicit mention: allusive references to purpose: allow an Jwur or so for driving. trailing after th em I "it's all right for some," Grandad tlie body I a liighly allusive poet. 3 [reporting verb] admit the truth of; concede: !with clause! h11ffed. it' ll be all right on the night used to say that a performance or event will be successful even - DERIVATI VES a llusively adverb, a llusiveness noun. lie allowed that the penalt)' appeared too harsl1 for if the preparations have n ot go ne well: the organizers alluvial /a'l(j)u:VJal/ •adjective relating t o or derived the crime I !with direa speech! 'Could lrnppen,' she allowed from alluvium: rich alluvial soils. indifferently. • [with clause! N. Amer. informal or dialea be of t1srnre eve1")'one tlzat it will all be all rigllt on the 11ight. the o pinion; assert: Lincoln allowed that he himself a ll- ro und• adjective lattrib.J Brit. 1 havin g a great many alluvion /a'l(j)u:v1an/ • noun !mass noun! chieflv Law t h e could never support the man. abilities or uses; ve rsatile: an all·round anist. • in act ion o f t he sea or a river in adding to t he. area of - PH RAS ES allow me said when making a polite many or a ll respects: his all·mund excellence. la nd by d eposition. Compare with AVULSION. requ est or offering help: please allow m e to introduce 2 on or from every s ide or in every direction: the - ORI GIN mid 16th cent. (originally denoting a flood, myself I "Here, allow me," came a woman's voice from car's la rge glass area provides excellent a/I-round especially one carrying suspended material w h ich is behindliim. vision. then depos ited): from French, fro m Latin alluvio(n·), - DERIVAT IVES allowedly adverb. from ad· 'towards'+ luere 'to wash'. all-rounder• noun Brit. a versatile person or t hing, - ORIGIN Mid dle English (originally in t he senses especially a c ricketer wh o can both bat and bowl alluvium /a 'l(j)u:v1am/ •noun [mass nounJ a deposit of 'commend, sanction' a nd 'assign as a right'): from well. clay, silt, and sand left by flowing fl oodwater in a Old French alouer, from Latin allaudare 'to praise', river valley or delta, typically producing fertile soil. All Saints' Day .. nou n a C h ristian festiva l in honour - ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: Latin, neuter of alluv ius rein forced by medieval Latin allocare 'to place' (see of all the saints in heaven, held (in t he Western 'washed against', from ad· 'towards' + luere ' to wash'. A LLOCATE). Ch urch) on 1 November. a llowable •adjective 1 a llowed, especially within a all-weather • adjective in or s uitable for a ll types of all-seater• adjective Brit. (of a sports stadium) having weather: an all-weather soccer pitch. set of regulation s; permissible: r/ie loan deal has been a seat for every spectator and no standing places. extended to the maximum allowable three months. all-wheel drive •noun North Amer ican term for 2 Brit (of an a mou nt of money) able to be earned or allseed • noun any of a number of plants producing a FOUR-WHEEL ORIVE. received free of tax: tax is payable after deduction of large number of seeds for their size. •Species in several families, in particular the small Radiofa linoides (family Unaceae) ally' /'alr..1 / • noun (pl. a llies) a state formally cooper- allowable expenses. at ing w ith another for a military or other purpose. - DERIVATIVES a llowably adverb. of Europe. •a person or organization that cooperates with or allowance • noun 1 the amount of someth ing that is All Souls' Day •noun a Cat holic commemoration helps another in a particular activity: he was fo rced permitted, especially w ithin a set of regulation s or wit h prayers for the souls of the dead, held on 2 to dismiss liis closest political ally. •(the Allies) t h e for a specified purpose: your baggage allowance. • Brit November. countries that fought w ith Britain in the First a n d an a mou nt of mone y that can be earned or received allspice •noun 1 !mass noun! the dried aromatic fruit of Second World Wars. free of tax: a pe1-sonal allowance. •Horse Racing a a Caribbean tree, used w h ole or ground as a culinary •verb also /a'w/ (allies, allying, allied) [with obj.I (ally deduct ion in the weight that a horse is required to spice and in t he production of certain liqueurs such something to/w ith) combine or unite a resource carry in a ra ce. as Benedictine. or commodity with (another) for mutual benefit: he VOWELS: a ca t a: arm E bed E: hair a ago a: her I s it i cosy i: see n h ot o: s aw r.. run u put u: too AI my 0 assimilationist I assurance 96 - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Latin assimi/at- associated with) b.- . ... ti··-·\' u: _::-::::: •• Jciate l'idge), but also from the use of identical consonants 'absorbed, incorporated', from the verb assimilare, oneself with) allO\ •. •,,. · ..· . ··-~ d with with different vowels (e.g. killed, cold, culled). A from ad- 'to'+ similis 'like'. or seen to be suppo .. ·I • .• 111yself · ... re - DER IVATI VES assonant adjective,. assimilationist~ noun a person who advocates or wit/1 so111e of r'lle language 11sea. •;no uuJ.J rtrcet or have - ORIG IN early 18th cent.: from French, from Latin participates in racial or cultural integration. dealings with someone regarded with disapproval: he assonal'e 'respond to', from ad- 'to'+ son are (from began to associate with the Mafia. somis 'sound'). Assisi' /a'si:si/ a town in the region of Umbria in ~ noun /a'sauJ1at, -s1at/ 1 a partner or companion in assort ~ verb 1 !no obj.I Genetics (of genes or character· central Italy; pop. 27,507 (2008). It is famous as the business or at work: a close associate of cl!e M inistel'. istics) become distributed among cells or progeny. birthplace of St Francis, whose tomb is located there. 2 a person with limited or subordinate membership 2 lwilh obj.I archaic place in a group; classify: he would Assisi' see CLARE oF Ass1s1, ST. of an organization. assort it wit/I the fabulous dogs as a monstl'ous Assisi' see FRANCIS OF ASSISI, ST. 3 chiefly Psychology a concept connected with another. invention. assist ~ verb lwnh obj.I help (someone), typically by ~ adjective /a'sauJ1at, -s1at/ (anrib.J connected with an - ORIGIN late 15th cent.: from Old French assoner, doing a share of the work: a senior academic would organization or business: an associate company. from a- (from Latin ad 'to, at')+ sol'te 'sort, kind'. assist /Jim in /tis work I lno oi>j.] their presence would • having shared function or membership but with a assortative ~ adject i ve denoting or involving the assist in keeping t/Je peace.• help by providing lesser status: tlie associate director of tlie academy. preferential mating of animals or marriage between money or information: thei• were assisting police wit/I - DERIVATIVES associability noun, associable adject· people with similar characteristics. t/Jeir inquiries I lno obj.I funds to assist witl1 capital ive, associateship noun, associator noun. - ORIGIN late Middle English (as a verb in the sense assorted ~ adjective lanrib.J of various sorts put investment. • lno obj.I be present as a helper: nvo together; miscellaneous: bowls in assoned colours. midwives wlw assisted at a waier birth. 'join with in a common purpose'; as an adjective in ~n oun chiefly N. Amer. an act of giving help, typically by the sense 'allied'): from Latin associat- 'joined', from assortment ~nou n a miscellaneous collection of providing money: rl!e budger must Jiave an assist from the verb associal'e, from ad- 'to'+ socius 'sharing, things or people: tile room was filled wic/1 an asson· tax policies. • (in sport) an act of touching the ball allied'. meut of cloches. in a play in which a teammate scores or an opposing associated~ adjective (of a person or thing) connect- ASSR ~ abbreviation historical Autonomous Soviet Social· batter is put out: Elliot Jiad 10 points and five assists. ed with something else: two associated events. • (of ist Republic. - DERI v ATl VES assister noun, assistive adjective. a company) connected or amalgamated with another Asst• abbreviation Assistant. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French assis· company or companies. • Chemistry (of liquids) in ter, from Latin assistere 'take one's stand by', from assuage /a'swe1d3/ ~ verb (with obj.) make (an unpleas· which the molecules are held together by hydrogen ant feeling) less intense: the letter assuaged tile fears ad- 'to, at'+ siste,.e 'take one's stand'. bonding or other weak interaction. of most members. • satisfy (an appetite or desire): assistance ~n oun !mass noun! the action of helping Associated Press (abbrev.: AP) an int ernational an opporttmity occw'l'ed to assuage lier desil'e for someone by sharing work: the work was completed news agency based in New York City. knowledge. with the assistance of cm·penten. •the provision of - DERIVATIVES assuagement noun. money, resources, or information to help someone: associate professor~ noun N.Amer. an academic ranking immediately below full professor. - ORIGIN Middle English: from Old French ass· schemes offering financial assistance to employers I ouagier, asouagier, based on Latin ad- ' to' (expressing she will be glad to give advice and assistance. association ~ noun 1 (often in names) a group of change)+ suavis 'sweet;. - PH RAS ES be of assistan ce be of practical use or people organized fo r a joint purpose: the National help: the guide will be of assistance to development Association of Probation Officers. • Ecology a stable As Sulaymaniyah /as/ full name of SuLAYMANtYAH. groups. come to someone's assistance act to help plant community including a characteristic group of assume ~ verb lwith obj.I 1 suppose to be the case, with- someone. dominant plant species. out proof: topics wl1icl1 assume detailed knowledge of - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French, or 2 a connection or cooperative link between people local events I lwilh clause] it is reasonable to assume tliar from medieval Latin assistentia, from Latin assistere or organizations: he developed a close association rncl1 changes have significant social effects I !with oi>j. (see ASSIST). with the university I !mass nounJ the prog,.amme was and infinitive! they were assumed to be foreign. assistant ~ noun a person who ranks below a senior promoted in association with the Department of 2 take or begin to have (power or responsibility): person: the managing director and his assistant I las Music. • !mass noun! the process or state of becoming Ile assumed full 1·esponsibility for all organizational modifier! an assistant manage1·. • lwi1h adj. Of noun modi· a subordinate member of an organization: las modifier] work. • seize (power or control). lier! a person who helps in particular work: a cm·e an association agreement between Bulga,.ia and the 3 begin to have (a specified quality, appearance, or assistant. EU. • Chemistry the linking of molecules through extent): militant activity had assumed epidemic pro· - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French, or hydrogen bonding or other interaction short of full pol'tions. • take on or adopt (a manner or identity), from medieval Latin assisrent- 'taking one's stand bond formation. somet imes falsely: Oliver assumed an expression of beside', from the verb assistere (see ASSIST). 3 (usu. associations) a mental connection between penitence I (as adj. assumed) a man living under an things: che WOl'd bul'eaucmcy /1as unpleasant associ· assumed name. assistant professor ~ noun N. Amer. a university - DERIVATIVES assuma ble adjective, assumedly t eacher ranking immediately below an associate ations. • !mass nounl the action of making a mental con nection: there's nothing new in t/Je association of adverb. professor. - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Latin assumere, fasting witl1 spirit11aliry. assistantship ~ noun N. Amer. a paid academic appoint· 4 !mass nounJ the state of occurring with something from ad- 'towards'+ sumere 'take'. ment made to a graduate student that involves part· assuming ~ conjunction used for the purpose of argu- else; co-occurrence: cases of cancer found in associ· time teaching or research. ation witl1 colitis. ment to indicate a premise on which a statement can assisted area ~ noun (in the UK) a region receiv· - DERIVATIVES associational adjective. be based: assuming that the rreary is ratified, what is ing government grants or loans for industrial - ORIGIN mid 16th cent. (in the sense 'uniting its relevance! development. in a common purpose'): from medieval Latin ~adjective archaic arrogant or p resumptuous. assisted place~ noun (in the UK) a place in an associatio(n-), from Latin associare 'to unite, ally' assumption ~noun 1 a t hing that is accepted as true independent school for a pupil whose fees are wholly (see ASSOCIATE). or as certain to h appen, without proof: they made cer· or partially subsidized by the state. association area ~noun Anatomy a region of the cor· ta in assumpriom about tl1e market I lwith clause! we'1·e assisted suicide ~n oun !mass nounJ the suicide of a tex of the brain which connects sensory and motor wol'king on the assumption chat tl1e time of de~th was patient suffering from an incurable disease, effected areas, and which is thought t o be concerned with af tel' midnight. by the taking of lethal drugs provided by a doctor for higher mental activities. 2 !mass noun! the action of taking on power or respons· this purpose. Association football ~ noun (mass noun! Brit. more ibility. assize /a'sAJz/ ~ noun (usu. assizes) historical a court 3 (Assumption) the reception of the Virgin Mary formal term for soccER. which formerly sat at intervals in each county of bodily into heaven. This was formally declared a association ism ~noun !mass noun} a theory in doctrine of t h e Roman Catholic Church in 1950. England and Wales to administer the civil and philosophy or psychology which regards the simple criminal law. In 1972 the civil jurisdiction of assizes • the feast in honour of the Assumption, celebrated association or co-occurrence of ideas or sensations as on 15 August. was transferred to the High Court, and the criminal the primary basis of meaning, thought, or learning. jurisdiction to the Crown Court. 4 !mass nounJarchaic arrogance or presumption. - DERIVATIVES associationist noun & adjective. - ORIGIN Middle English (in sense 3): from Old - ORIGIN Middle English: from Old French assise, fem inine past participle of asseeir 'sit, settle, assess', Association of Southeast Asian Nations French asompsion or Latin assumptio(n-), from t he from Latin assidel'e (see ASSESS) . (abbrev.: ASEAN) a regional organization intended verb assumel'e (see ASSUME). to promote economic cooperation and now compris- assumptive ~ adjective 1 rare of the nature of an a ss-kicking ~ adjective N. Amer. YUlgar slang forceful or aggressive. ing the countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philip- assumption. pines, Singapore, Th ailand, Vietnam, and Brunei. 2 archaic arrogant or presumptuous. ass-kissing ~ noun !mass nounJ N. Amer. vulgar slang ob· - ORIG IN mid 16th cent. (in the sense 'taken, sequious behaviour in order to gain favour. associative~ adjective 1 of or involving the associ- ation of things: making associacive links. • Compu1ing adopted'): from Latin assumptivus, from the verb ass-licking~ noun vulgar slang US spelling of ARSE· of or denoting computer storage in which items are assume re (see ASSUME). LICKING. identified by content rather than by address. Assur f'aJua/ (also Asur or Ashur) an ancient city- ass load ~ noun N. Amer. vulgar slang a large number or 2 Mathema1ics involving the condition that a group of state of Mesopotamia, situated on the Rive r Tigris amount of something. quantities connected by operators gives the same to t he south of modern Mosul. It was the traditional Assoc. ~abbrevi ation (as part of a title) Association. result whatever their grouping, i.e. in whichever capital of the Assyrian empires. associate~ verb /a'sauJmt, -s1e1t/ (with obj.I (often order the operations are performed, as long as the assurance ~ noun 1 a positive declaration intended associate someone/thing with) connect (some· order of the quantities remains the same, e.g. (a x b) to give confidence; a promise: lwilh clause] he gave an one or something) with something else in one's x c =a x (bx c). asrnrance time wol'k would begin on Monday. mind: I associated wealtl1 with fl·eedom. • connect assonance /'as(a)nans/ ~ noun !mass noun! resemblance 2 !mass nounJ confidence or certainty in one's own (something) with something else because they occur of sound between syllables of n earby words, aris· abilities: site drove witl1 assurance. • certainty about togeth er or one produces the other: the environment· ing particularly from the rhyming of two or more something: assurance of faith depends on Ott!' rrnst al pl'oblems associated witIi nucleal' waste. • (be stressed vowels, but not consonants (e.g. sonnet, pol'· in God. VOWELS: a cat a: arm E bed E: hair a ago a: her t sit i cosy i: see o hot ~: saw A run u put u: too hi my 0 autocephalous I automaton 108 autocepha lous /,o:ta(u)'sEr(a)las. -'kEf./ .. adjective Compu1ing (of a modem) automatically dial a te• ·:r·'• "'< ~ •.tomatically and in a way that seems inge- (of an Eastern Christian Church) appointing its own number or establish a connection with a comr • 1:r .. ~ ., plicable, or magical:jus1 type in r/Je name A head, not subject to the authority of an external - DERIVATIVES autod ialler no un. .. I ...:,, want lo Ii seen to, and it automagically patriarch or archbishop. autodidact /'o:taud1dakt/ .. noun a self·taugh, your compucer. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from Greek autokeplialos person.) .., •/' ~ 40s: blend of AUTOMATICALLY and MAGICALLY. (from a11cos 'self'+ kep/iale 'head')+ -ous. - DERIVATIVES auto didact ic adjective. a u to make r .. noun N. Amer. a company which manu· autochanger (also a utochange) .. noun a mecha- - ORIGIN mid 18th cent.: from Greekmrcodidakcos factures cars. nism for the automatic substitution of one CD or 'self-taught'. from auros 'self'+ dirlaskein 'teach'. automat .. noun US hi'1orical a cafeteria in which food record for another during use. a u to-erot ic .. adjective relating to sexual excitement and drink we re obtained from slot machines. a utochrome .. noun lmass nounl iusu. as mod1f1erl an early generated by stimulating or fantas izing about one's - ORIG IN late 17th cent. (denoting an automaton): form of colour photography using plates coated with own body. from German, from French aucomare, from Latin dyed starch grains, patented by the Lumiere brothers - DERIVA T IVES a uto·eroticism noun. aucomatou (see AUTOMATON). The current sense dates in 1904. • lcouni noun! a colour photograph made by a uto-exposure .. noun a device which sets the from the early 20th cent. this process. exposure automaticall)' on a camera. • !mass noun! the a utomate .. verb Jwith obj.) convert (a process or facil- a u t ochthon /J:'tokO(a)n, -eaun/ .. noun (pl. autoch- facility to set exposure automaticall)'. ity) to be operated by largely automatic equipment: thons or autochthones /-Oani:z/) an original or autofi II .. noun Computing a software function that ind us cry is investing in a11comati11g prod11crion I (as indigenous inhabitant of a place; an aborigine. completes data in browser forms without the user ad1. aut omated) a fully automaced process. - ORIGIN late 16th cent.: from Greek, literally'sprnng needing to type it in full. - OR IGIN 1950s: back-formation from AUTOMATIO N. from t he earth', from a11cos 'self'+ kht/1011 'earth, aut ofocus .. noun a device focusing a camera or other automat ed teller machine .. noun a machine soil'. piece of equipment automatically. • !mass noun! the that automatically provides cash and performs other autocht honous /o:'tokOanas/ .. adjective (of an facility for aut omatic focusing. banking services on insertion of a special card by the - DERIVATIVES a utofocus ing noun. account holder. inhabitant of a place) indigenous rather than descended from migrants or colonists. • Geology (of a autogamy /o:'togami/ .. noun Biology self-fertilization, automatic .. adjective 1 (of a device or process) deposit or formation) formed in its present position. especially the self pollination of a flower. Compare working by itself with little or no direct human Often contrasted with ALLOCHTHONous. With AllDGAMY. control: an aucomaric kert/e that switches itself off - DERIVATIVES a utogamous adjective. w/1e11 it boils I calibration is fully auromacic. • (of a autoclave /':i:ta(u)kle1v / .. noun a strong heated - ORI GIN late 19th cent.: from AUTO· ' 'self'+ Greek firearm) self-loading and able to fire continuously container used for chemical reactions and other until the ammunit ion is exhausted or the pressure processes using high pressures and temperatures, -gamia (from gamos ' marriage'). on the trigger is released. • (of a motor vehicle or its e.g. steam sterilization. autogenic /,o:ta(u)'d3m1k/ .. adjective technical self· transmission) using gears that change by themselves .. verb !with obj.I heat (somethi ng) in an autoclave. generat ed: mrtogcnic rnccession. according to speed and acceleration. - ORIG IN late 19th cent.: from French, from auco· autogenic tra ining .. noun !mass noun! a form of 2 done or occurring spontaneously, without 'self'+ Latin clavus 'nail' or clavis 'key' (so named relaxat ion therapy involving auto-suggestion. conscious thought or attention: automacic pliysical because it is self-fastening). fimccions mch as breathing I 'Nice co meet you,' lie autogenous / o:'tod3mas/ .. adjective arising from autocomplete .. noun Computing a software function w ithin or from a thing itself. • (of welding) done said, wit/1 aucomatic policeness. • done or occurring that completes words or strings wit hout the user either without a filler or with a filler of the same as a matter of course and without debate: lie is rile needing to type them in full. metal as the pieces being welded. atttomacic clioice for the seuiorteam. • (especially of autocorrelation .. noun !mass noun! Mathematics & Statis· autogiro (also autogyro) .. noun (pl. autogiros) a legal sanaion) given or imposed as a necessary and tics correlation between the elements of a series and a form of aircraft w ith freely rotating horizontal inevitable result of a fixed rule or particular set of others from the same series separated from them blades and a propeller. It differs from a helicopter circumstances: J1e 1·eceived an automatic one~match by a given interval. • !count noun! a calculation of such in that the blades are not powered but rotate in suspension. correlation. the slipstream, propulsion being by a conventional .. noun 1 a gun that continues firing until the ammuni- moun ted engine. tion is exhausted or the pressure on the trigger is autocracy /o:'tokrasi/ .. noun (pl. autocracies) !mass released. noun! a system of government by one person w ith - OR IGIN 1920s: from Spanish, from auto·'self' +giro 'gyratio n'. 2 a vehicle with automatic transmission. absolute power. • !count noun! a state or society gov- - DER Iv ATl v ES a utomatically adverb, automaticit y erned by one person with absolute power. • domi- autograft .. noun a graft of tissue from one point to noun. neering rule or control: a boss w/10 sliifcs beru1ee11 another of the same individual's body. - ORIGIN mid 18th cent.: from Greek aucomatos 'act· aurocraCJ' and consultation. autograph .. noun 1 a signature, especially that of a ing of itself' (see AUTOMATON)+ ·IC. - ORIGIN mid 17th cent. (in the sense 'autonomy'): celebrity wrinen as a memento for an admirer: fans from Greek aucokraceia, from a11cokraces (see automatic gain cont rol .. noun lmass noun) Electron1CS surged aro1111d c/1e car asking for a11tograp/1s. a feature of certain amplifier circuits which gives a AUTOCRAT). 2 a manuscript or musical score in an author's or constant output over a wide range of input levels. a utocrat .. noun a ruler who has absolute power. • an musician's own handwriting. • !mass noun! a person's imperious person who insists on complete obedience handwriting. automatic pilot·.. noun a device for keeping an .. verb,,,.,;th obj.I wri te one's signature on (something); aircraft on a set course with out the intervention of from others. sign: clie wlio/e team autogmphed a shirr for him I (as the pilot. - ORIG IN early 19th cent.: from French autocrate, adj. autographed) a11 autograplied photo. - PHRASES on automatic pilot out of routine or from Greek autokrates, from autos 'self'+ kracos .. adjective written in the author's own handwriting: an habit, without concentration or conscious thought: I 'power'. a11cograpli ma11uscrip1. • (of a painting or sculpture) Jeapr ouc of bed and dressed on au coma tic pi Joe. autocratic .. adjective relating to a ruler who has automatic translation .. noun another term for absolute power: the conscitiirional reforms c/1reat- done by the artist, not by a copier. e11ed /!is aucocracic power. • taking no account of - DERIVATIVES autographic adjective. MACHIN E TRANSLATION. other people's wishes or opinions; domineering: a - ORtGIN early 17th cent.: from French aucograp/Je or a u t omatic writing .. noun lmass noun} writing said to man wich a reputation for an atttocracic management late Latin autographum, from Greek a11tograp/Jo11, be produced by a spiritual, occult, or subconscious style. neuter of a11tog1·aphos 'written with one's own hand', agency rather than by the conscious intention of the from au cos 'self'+ grap/1os 'written'. writer. - DERIVATIVES autocratically adverb. autography .. no un !mass noun! 1 writing done with automation .. noun (mass noun! the use or introduct ion autocrine /':>:ta(u)krAm/ .. adjective Biochemisiry denot· ing or relating to a cell-produced subst ance that has one's own hand. of automatic equipment in a manufaauring or other 2 the facsimile reproduction of writing or illustra· process or facility. an effect on the cell by which it is secreted. ti on. - ORIGIN 1940s (originally US): irregular formation - ORIG I N 1980s: from AUTO·' + Greek kri ncin'to sepa- 3 lcount noun! an autobiography. from AUTOMATIC+ - ATION. rate'. autohar p .. no un a kind of zither fitted with a series automatism /o:'tomatiz(a)m/ .. noun !mass noun! autocross .. noun [mass noun}Brit. a form of motor of sprung and padded bars which allow the playing racing in which cars are driven singly or in heats Psychiatry the performance of actions without con· of chords by damping selected strings. scious thought or intention. • lcount noun! an aaion over a course including rough terrain or unmade aut ohypnosis .. noun !mass noun} induaion of a hyp- performed unconsciously or involuntarily. • Art the roads. Compare with RALLYcRoss. • N.AmEr. a form notic state in oneself; self-hypnosis. avoidance of conscious intention in producing works of competition in which cars are driven around an - DERIVATIVES autoh ypnot ic adjective. of art, especially by using mechanical techniques or obstacle course, typically marked out by cones on an subconscious associations. empty car park. autoimmune .. adjective Med1Cine relating to disease caused by antibodies or lymphocytes produced - ORIG! N mid 19th cent.: from French automacisme, - ORIGIN i96os: blend of AUTOMOBILE and CROSS-COUNTRY. from automate'automaton', from Greek automatos autocue .. noun trademark, Brit. a device which projects against substances naturally present in the body: rile infeccion triggers an auroinmwne response. 'acting of itself' (see AUTOMATON). an enlarged image of a script on to a clear glass a utomatize /J:'tomalA1Z/ (also automatise) .. verb - DER I VAT I VES a utoimmunity noun. screen in front of a person speaking on television !with obj.I (usu. as adj. auto m at ized) make automatic or in public, so enabling the speaker t o read their a u tointoxication .. noun !mass noun! Medicine poison· ing bi• a toxin formed within the body itself. or habitual: rile need ro refres/i automatized forms of speech while appearing to be looking at the viewers licerature. or audience. autologous /o:'tolagas/ .. adjective (of cells or tis- - DERIVATIVES automa t ization noun. a uto-da-fe /,:i:tauda:'fe1/ .. noun (pl. autos-da-fe sues) obtained from the same individual. automaton / o:'tomat(a)n/ .. noun (pl. automat a /-ta/ /,o:tauz-/) the burning of a heretic by the Spanish a u tolysis /J:'to!Js1s/ .. noun !mass noun! Biology the or aut omatons) a moving mechanical device made Inquisition. • a sentence of such a kind. destruction of cells or tissues by their own enzymes, in imit at ion of a human being. • a machine which - ORIGIN early 18th cent.: from Ponuguese, literally especially those released by lysosomes. performs a ra nge of functions according to a prede· 'act of the faith'. - DERIVATIVES a utolytic adjective. te rmined set of coded instructio ns. autodial .. verb (autodia ls, autodialling, autodi- automagically /o:ta'mad31kli/ .. adverb informal - ORIG! N early 17th cent.: via Latin from Greek, neu- alled; US autodials, autodialing, autodialed) lno obj.I (especially in relation to the operation of a computer ter of au coma cos ' acting of itself', from au cos 'self'. VOWE LS: a cat a: arm £ b ed s: h air a ago a: he r 1 sit i cosy i: see o hot o: saw " ru n u pu t u: too AI my detergent I detritus 0 deterge nt .., noun a water-svi::~..,! r:- L:i-:.?..:1.'1.1-,1-~ ....... ~1: - O RIGIN late Middle En glish: from Old French dete,.mine,., from Latin decenninare 'limit, fix', from detorsion /d1'to:f(a)n / .. noun !mass nounl Zoology (in gastropod mollu scs) the evolutionar y reversion of a 478 T which combines with impur·Lv r.·1C. di,-:c .:u, ~ them more soluble, an d diffe:·'.'" ~ru:~·1 !,ca;...:;1;;, .i. de- 'completely' + tenn;nare ' terminate'. group to a primitive linear body plan. Compare with forming a scum with the salt!. !:-.:1,;:;;-.~: .•.·;3 e:. t• =:.:-·_ TORSION. det ermined .. adjective h avin g made a firm decision add it ive w ith a similar action tJ d ~iC-:1?: gpr,!. t: . ~ !c!: and being resolved not to change it: [with infinitive! detour .. noun a long or round abou t route t hat is oil-soluble substance which holds di rt in su spension Alina was dete rmined to be l1eard. •possessing or taken to avoid something or to visit somewhere in lubricating oil. displaying resolve: Helen was a determined little girl I along the way: he had made a detour to a cafe. •an .. adjective relati ng to detergents or their action. a determined effort to,.educe inflation. alternative route for use by traffic when the usual - DERIVATIVES dete rgence noun, detergency noun. - D ERI VATIVES det erminedly adverb, road is temporarily closed. - ORIGIN early 17th cent. (as an adjective): from Latin determinedness noun. .. verb Ina ol>j., with adverbial of direction] chiefly N. Amer. t ake a detergent- 'wiping away', from the verb detergere, long or roundabout route: he detoured around the determiner .. noun 1 a person or t hing that deter· walls. • [with obj.J avoid by taking a detour: I would from de- 'away from'+ w·gere 'to wipe'. mines or decides someth ing. detou r t11e endless scream of motol' Jw mes. D deteriorate /dJ' t1anare1t/ .. verb Ina obj.] become 2 Grammar a modifying word that determi nes the kind - O RI G IN mid 18th cent. (as a noun): from French progress ively worse: relations between the countries of reference a noun or noun group h as, for example Jiad deteriorated sharply I (as adj. deteriorating) detoul' 'chan ge of d irection', from detoumel' 'turn a, tile, e11ery. See also ARTICLE. away'. detei-iora cing economic conditiom. - D ERI VAT I VES deteriorative adjective. deter mining .. adjective cau sing something to occur detox informal .. noun /'di:toks/ !mass noun! detoxification: - O RIG IN late 16th cent. (in the sense 'make worse'): or be done in a particular way; serving to d ecide he ended up in det ox fo,. th ree months. from late Latin deteriorat-'worsened', from the verb something: money may have been tl1e determining .. verb / di:'tolrn/ detoxify. deceriorare, from Lat in dererior 'worse'. f acto,. in l1is decision. detoxica te /di:'toksrke1t/ .. verb another term for deterioration .. noun !mass noun! the process of d eterminism .. noun Jmass noun] Philosophy the doctrine DETOX IFY. becoming progressively worse: a deterioration in the that all events, incl uding human act ion, are ulti- - DERIVATIVES d e t oxication noun. condition of t11e pntiellt. m ately determined by causes regarded as external t o - OR I GIN mid 19th cent.: from DE - (expressing the w ill. Some philosophers have t aken determinism removal)+ Lat in t oxicum 'poison ', on the pattern of determinable .. adjective 1 able to be defi n itely to imply that individu al human beings have no free decided or ascertained: a readily determinable intoxicate. will and cannot be held morall y responsible for t h eir 11za1·ket value. d etoxification .. noun [mass noun! the process of action s. removing toxic substances. • medical treatment 2 Law capable of being brou ght to an end u nder given - DERIVATIVES determinist noun & adjective, conditions. of an alcoholic or drug addict involving abstention deterministic adjective, deterministically adverb. - OR IGIN late Middle English: via Old French from from drink or drugs until t he bloodstream is free of late Lat in detenninabilis 'finite', from the verb deter rent /d1'tor(a)nt/ .. noun a thing that discourag- toxins. detenninare (see DETERMINE) . es or is intended to discourage someone from doing detoxif y /di:'toksrfA1/ .. verb (detoxifies, detoxify· determina nt /d1'ta:mman t/ .. noun 1 a factor which somet hing: camera s m·e a major deterrent to crime. ing, detoxified) lwilh ol>j.I remove toxic su bstances decisive ly affect s th e nature or out come of some- • a nuclear weapon or weapons system regarded as from: the process uses chemical reagents to detoxify th ing: pure force of w ill was tlie main determinant d et erring an enemy from attack. tile oil. • abstain or help to abstain from drink and of llis success. • Biology a gene or other factor which .. adjective able or intended to det er: tl1e deterrent effect drugs until the bloodst ream is free of toxins, in order determines the character and development of a of lieavy p,.ison sen ten ces. to overcome alcoholism or drug addiction. • Jno obj.I cell or cells in an organ ism, a set o f which forms an - DERIVATIV ES deterrence noun. become free of harmful substances: you can lieIp indi vidual's idiotype. - ORIGIN early 19th cent.: from Latin deterrent- 'det er· your body detoxify by cutting down on coffee. 2 Mathematics a qua ntity obtained by the addition of ring', fro m th e verb deten·ere (see OETER) . - DERIVA TI VES detoxifier noun. products of t he elements of a square m atrix accord· detest .. verb [with obj.] d islike intensely: sl1e really did - ORIG I N early 20th cent.: from DE· (expressin g ing to a g iven rule. detest his mockery. removal)+ Lat in toxicum 'poison' + -Fv. .. adjective serving to determine or decide someth ing. - DE R IVATI VES detester noun. detract .. verb Ina ol>j.J(d etract from) diminish t he - O RIGI N early 17th cent.: from Latin dete rminant- - OR I GIN late 15th cent.: from Lat in detestari, from de- worth or value of (a quali ty or achievement): t11ese 'determ ining', from the verb de terminare (see ' down'+ testa,.i 'witness, call upon to witness' (from quibbles in no way detract from her ac11ievement. DETERMINE). testis 'a witness'). • !with ol>j.J take away (a specified amount) from the determinate /d1'ta:rrunat/ .. adjective h aving exact detestable .. adjective deserving intense dislike: worth or value of a quality or achievement. and discernible limits or form: tile longest determi· I fou n d the fi lm's violence detestable. - DER I VAT I VES d e traction noun, detractive adjective. nate prison sentence e11er upheld by English courts. - DERIVATIVES d etestably adverb. - ORIG IN lat e M iddle English: from Latin detract- •Botany (of a flowering shoot) having the main axis - ORIGIN late Middle English: from O ld French, or 'drawn away', from the verb detra11ere, from de- ending in a flower bud an d t herefore no longer from Lat in detestabilis, from t he verb decestal'i (see ' away from' + t ral1ere 'draw'. extend ing in length, as in a cyme. DETEST). detractor .. noun a person w h o disparages someone - DERIVA TI VES determinacy noun, determinately detestation /,di:t£'ste1J(a)n/ .. noun !mass noun! intense or something. adverb, det erminateness noun. - ORIG I N late Middle En glish: from Latin dislike: Wordsworth's detestation of aristocracy. detr a in .. verb leave or cause to leave a train. detenninatus 'limited, d eterm ined', past participle • !count noun! archaic a d etested person or th ing: he is the - DERIVATI V ES detrainment noun. of decerminare (see DETERM INE). detestation of tl1e neighbourhood. detribalize (also detrib alise) .. verb !with obj.] (usu. - ORIGI N late Middle English: via Old French from as adj. detriba lized) remove (someone) fro m a tradi- dete rmi nation .. noun [mass noun! 1 the quality of Latin detestatio(n-), from the verb de testari (see be ing d etermined; firmness of purpose: chose wlw t ional tribal social structure. DETEST) . - DER I VATIVES d etri balization noun. succeed because of sheer grit and determination. 2 the process of establishing something exactly by deth rone .. verb [with obj.I remove (a monarch) from detriment j'detrrm(a)nt/ .. nou n Jmass noun] the st ate of calculation or research: determination of molecular power. • remove from a posit ion of au thority or bein g harmed or damaged: he is engrossed in his work structures. • Law the settlement of a dispute by the dominance: lie dethroned tile defending citle-Jwlder. to tlie detriment of /Jis married life J liglit industry au thoritative d ecision of a judge or arbitrato r. • [count - D E RIVATIVES dethronement noun. can be carried out in a residential area w ithout detri· noun] Law a judicial decision or sentence. detinue /'dttmju:/ .. noun !mass nou n] Law the cri me of ment to its amenities. • !count noun] a cause of harm or 3 the controlli ng or deciding of th e nature or out- wrongful detention of goods or personal possessions damage: mcll tests are n detriment to good education. come of somethin g: genetic sex determination. (replaced in the UK by the t ort of wrongful interfer- - O RI GIN late Middle English in the sense 'loss 4 Law t h e cessation of an estate or interest. ence of goods). sustained by dam age': from Old French, from Latin 5 archaic a t endency to move in a fixed d irection. - OR IG I N late Middle English: from Old Fren ch detrimentum, from detri-, stem of deterere 'wear - OR IGIN late Middle English (in the senses 'settle- detenu e, past participle (used as a nou n) of detenir away'. ment of a controversy by a ju dge or by reason ing' and 'detain'. detrimental .. adjective tending to cause harm: 'au thorit ative opinion'): via Old French fro m Latin recent policies Jw11e been detrimental to the interesrs deto nate /'dttane1t/ .. verb explode or cause to detenninatio(n -), from the verb determinare (see of many old people J moving lier could /Jave n d etri· explode: [no obj.I two other bombs f ailed to detonate I DETERMINE). mental effect on lier Ilea/th. lwilh obj.I a trigger that can detonate nuclear w eapons. determin ative /dr'ta:nunatJv/ .. adjective lpredic.I - DE RIVATIVES detonative adjective. - DE R I VA TIVES detrimentally adverb. chiefly law serving to define, qu alify, or direct: tile - O R IGIN early 18th cent.: from Latin detonat- 'thun· detr ition /dr'trrJ(a)n/ .. noun !mass noun! rare the action em µloye1·,s view is not determi native of tlie issue. dered d own or forth', from the verb deto11are, from of wearing something away by fr iction. ., noun Grammar another term for DETERMINER. de- 'down' + conare 'to t h under'. - OR IGIN late 17th cent.: from medieval Latin determine /d1'ta:mm/ .. verb !with obj.] 1 cause detonatio n .. noun !mass noun] the act ion of causing a detritio(n-), from detri-, stem of deterere 'wear away'. (something) to occur in a particular way or to have a bomb or explosive d evice to explode.• !count noun] a detritivore /d1' tritJ vJ:/ .. noun Zoology an animal particular nature: it will be her mental attitude that loud explosion: a series of deafening detonations w as which feeds on dead organic material, especially determines her future. heard. • technical combustion of a substance wh ich is plant detritus. 2 asce rta in or establish exactly by research or initiated suddenly an d propagates extremely rapidly, - DE RI VAT IVES detritivorous /,cl£trt't1v(a)r as/ calculation: tile inquest is entrusted 111itl1the cask of giving rise to a sh ock wave. Compare with oEFLAGRA- adjective. determining t11e cause of deatJ1 I!with clause! tire point of TION. • the premature combustion of fuel in an - o R I GIN i 96os: from DETRITUS+ -vore 'eating' (see ot1r study w as to detennin e wlwt is t ru e, not w ll nt is internal-combustion engine, causing pinking. -VOROUS) . practicable. • Mathematics specify th e value, position, - OR IG IN late 17th cent.: from French detonation, or form of (a mathematical or geometrical object) det ritus /dJ'tri\Itas/ .. noun !mass noun! wast e or debris from the verb detoner, from Latin detonare 'th under of any kind: tile st reets were foul witJ1detritus. un iquely. down ' (see DETONATE). 3 !no obj.I firmly decide: Ile d etermin ed on a with- • gravel, sand, silt, or oth er material prod uced by drawal of liis forces I !with infinitive] sJ1e determined to detonator .. noun a device or small sensitive charge erosion. • organic matter produ ced by the d ecompo· tackle Stephen the next day. used t o detonate an explosive. • Brit. another term for sition of organisms. 4 Law, archaic bri ng or come to an en d. FOG SIG NAL. - DERIVATIVES detrital adjective. CONSONANTS: b b ut d d og f f ew g get h h e j yes k cat I leg m m an n no p p en r red s sit t top v voice 0 763 grape hyacinth I grassbox - ORIGIN early 19th cent.: from GRAPE + FRUIT (probably graphic a rts• plural noun ~he visual arts based - OR IGIN Middle English (as a noun denoting a becau se the fru its grow in clusters). on the use oi hne and cone rather than three- grappling hook): from Old French grapil, from gra pe hya cinth ~noun a small Eurasian plant of dimens ior.~I work or the use of colour. • !mass noun! Proven~al, diminutive of grapa 'hook', of Germanic the lily family, with clusters of small globular blue (grap hic art) t he pr"ctice of graphic arts, especially origin; related to GRAPE. T he verb dates from the mid flowers, cultivated as an ornamental or for use in as a subjec; cf study. 16th cent. perfume. •Genus Muscori, family Liliaceae. - DERIVATIVES graphic artist,;oun. grappli ng hook (also gra ppling iron) • noun a g ra pe ivy~ noun an evergreen climbing plant of t he g raphic design • noun !mass noun! t he art or skill device with iron claws, attached to a rope and used vine fam ily which is grown as a houseplant. • Genera of combining text and pictures in ad vertisements, for draggin g or graspin g. Ossus and Rhoicissus, family Vitaceae: several species, in magazines, or books. graptolite /'graptaL\lt/ ~noun a fossil marine inver- particular(. rhombifo/io (or R. rhomboideo). - OERIVATIVES graphic designer noun. tebrate ani mal of the Palaeozoic era, formin g mainly grapesee d oil ~noun Imm noun) oil extracted from graphic equal i zer~ noun an electronic device or planktonic colonies and believed to be related to the the resid ue of grapes which have been juiced. computer program which allows the separate control pterobranchs. • Class Graptolithina, phylum Hemichordata. grapeshot ~noun (mass noun! historical ammunition con- of the strength and quality of selected frequency - ORIGtN mid 19th cent.:from Greek grapros'marked sisting of a number of small iron balls fi red together bands. with letters'+ ·UTE: so named because of the impres- from a cannon. graphic novel ~noun a novel in comic-strip format. sions left on hard shales, resembling markings with a slate pencil. g rape sugar ~ noun !mass noun! dextrose present in o r graphics ~ plural noun (usu. treated as sing.1 1 the products derived from grapes. of th e graphic arts, especially commercial design or Grasmere f'gra:sm1a/ a village in Cumbria, beside a illustration. small lake of the same name; pop. 1,000 (est. 2009). g ra pev ine ~noun 1 a vine native to b oth Eurasia and W illiam and Dorothy Wordsworth lived there from North America, especially one bearing grapes used 2 the use of diagrams in calculation an d design. 3 (also computer graphics) !treated as pl.I visual 1799. for eatin g or winemaking. • Genus Vitis, familyVitaceae: many species. in particular V. vinifero and the American images produced by computer processing. • (trea1ed as grasp /gra:sp/ ~ verb !with obj.I seize and hold firmly: V. labrusco. sing.I the use of computers linked to display screens s/Je grasped r/1e borrle I Edward grasped /Jel' by rhe 2 informal used to refer to the circulation of rumou rs to gen erate and manipulate visual images. wrisr. • take (an opportuni t y) eagerly: many G and u noffi cial information: I'd Ilea rd on tlle g1·ape- graphics card ~ noun Computing a pr inted circu it companies grasped the opportunity to expand. vi11e tllat tile business was nearly settled. board that controls the output to a display screen. • comprehend fu lly: rl!e press failed ro grasp the significance of what /J ad /Jappened. graph' /gra:f, graf/ ~ nou n a diagram showing the g raphics tablet~ noun Computing an input d evice ~ noun {in sing.I a firm hold or grip: tl1e child slipped from rela tion between variable quantities, typically of two consisti ng of a fl at, pressure-sensitive pad which the her gm sp. • a person's power or capacity to attain variables, each measured along one of a pair of axes user draws on or points at with a special stylus, to something: he knew rnccess was within /Jis grasp. • a at right angles. • Mathematics a collection of points guide a pointer displayed on the screen. person's understanding: meanings t/Jar are beyond my whose coordinates satisfy a given relation. graphite~ noun !mass noun! a grey crystalline allotropic grasp I /Jis grasp of detail. ~ verb !with obj.I plot o r trace on a graph. form of carbon which occurs as a mineral in some - PHRASES grasp at straws see STRAW. grasp the - ORIG IN late 19th cent.: abbreviat ion of grapl1ic rocks and can be made from coke. It is used as a solid nettle Brit tackle a difficulty boldly. !because a nettle formula. lubricant, in pencils, and as a moderator in nuclear stings when touched lightly, but not when grasped gra ph 2 /gra:f. graf/ ~ noun Lifl<)uistics a visual symbol reactors. firmly.J representing a unit of sound or oth er feature of - DERIVATIVES graphitic adjective. - DERIVATIVES graspable adjective, grasper noun. speech. Graphs incl u de not only lette rs of the alpha- - ORIG IN late 18th cent.: coined in German (Grapltir), - ORIGIN late Middle English: perhaps related to bet but also punctuation marks. fro m Greek grapl!ein 'write' (because of its u se as GROPE. - ORIGIN 1930s: from Greek graplre 'wr iting'. pencil 'lead'). grasping ~adjective avaricious; greedy: t/Jey were ·graph ~combining form 1 in nouns denoti ng som e- graphitize f' (also graphitise) ~ verb regarded as grasping landlords. thing wri tten or dra wn in a specified way: aurograp/1. technical convert or be converted into graphite. - DERIVATI VES graspingly adverb, graspingnes s 2 in nouns denot ing an instrument that records: - DERIVATIVES graphitization noun. noun. seismograph. graphology •noun !mass noun! 1 the study of Grass /gra:s, gras/, Giinter (Wilhelm) (b.1927), Ger- - ORIGIN from French -graphe, based on Greek handwriting, for example as used to in fer a person's man novelist, poet, and dramatist. Notable works: gl'ap/10s 'written, writing'. character. The Tin Drum (novel, 1959) and nre Flounder (novel, grapheme f'grafi:m/ ~ noun linguistics the smallest 2 Linguistics th e study of written and printed symbols 1977). He was awarded t he 1999 Nobel Pri ze for meaningful contrastive unit in a writing system. and of writing systems. Literature. Compare with PHONEME. - DER Iv ATl VE S graphologica I adjective, graphologist grass ~ no un 1 !mass noun! vegetation consisting of typi- - DERIVATIV ES graphemic adjective,. noun. cally s hort plants with long, narrow leaves, growing -ORIGIN 193os:fromGRAPH2 + ·EME. - OR IGIN mid 19th cent.: fromGreekgrap/1~'writ­ wild or cultivated on lawns and pasture, and as a -grapher ~ combining form indicating a person ing' + ·LOGY. fodder crop. • ground covered with grass. • pasture concerned with a subject denoted by a noun ending graph paper~ noun (mass noun! paper printed with land: the farms we1·e mosrly given over ro grass. in -graplty (such as geographer corresponding to a ne twork of small squares to assist the drawing of 2 a mainl y he rbaceous plant with jointed stems geography). graphs or other diagrams. and sp ikes of small wind-pollinated fl owers, - ORIGIN from Greek -grap/1os 'writer' + ·ER' . graph theory • noun !mass noun! the mathematical predominant in grass. graphic ~adjective 1 relating to visual art, especially th eory of the properties and applications of g raphs. Grasses belong to the large family Gramineae (or Poaceae; involving drawing, engraving, or let te ring: 11is ·gra phy ~ combining form in no un s denot ing: 1 a the grass family). and form the dominant vegetation marure graphic work. • Computing relating to or d enot- descriptive science: geograpl1y. of many areas of the world. The possession of a growing ing a visual image: grap hic infonnation suc/1 as cha res 2 a technique o f producing images: radiograp/Jy. point that is mainly at ground level makes grasses suitable mid diag1·ams. 3 a style or method of writing or drawing: cal/igra- as the food of many grazing animals, and for use in lawns 2 giving clear and vividly explicit details: a grapl1ic pl1y. • w riting about (a specified subject): /iagiogra- and playing fields. account of r!1e riots. phy. • a written or printed list: filmograp/Jy. 3 of or in the form of a graph. - OR IGIN from or suggested by Greek -graphia 3 !mass noun! informal cannabis. 4 lattrib I Geol09y of or de noting rocks having a surface 'writing'. 4 Brit. informal a police informer. {perhaps related to the texture resembling cun eiform writing. 19th-cent. rhyming slang grass/10pper'copper'.J >-noun Computifl<) a graphical item displayed on a screen grapnel f'grapn(a)l/ • noun 1 a grappling hook. ~ verb !with obj.J 1 cover (an area of ground) with grass: or Stored as data. 2 a small anchor with several flukes. t/Je railway tracks were mosrly grassed over. • US - DERIVATIVES graphically adverb, graphicness noun. - ORIGI N late Middle English: from an Anglo-Norman feed (livestock) on grass. - ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: via Latin from Greek Fren ch diminut ive of Old French grapo11, of Ger- 2 Brit. informal inform the police of someone's cri minal grapltikos, from grapl!i! 'wri ting, drawing'. manic origin. activities or plans: lno obj.I someone /Jad grassed on r/Je ·graph ic~ combining form in adjectives corresponding grappa f'grapa/ ~ noun !mass noun! a brandy dist illed rl1ieves I !with obj.I sire rl1reare11ed to grass me 11p. to nouns ending in -graphy (such as demograµl1ic from the fermented residue of grapes after they 3 catch and bri ng (a fi sh) to the riverbank. corresponding to demograplry). have been pressed in winemaking. 4 chiefly Rugby & Ausiralian Rules knock (someone) down. - DERIVAT IVES -graphically combining form in - ORIG1N Italian, lite rally 'grape stalk', of Germanic - PHRASES at grass grazing. the grass is always corresponding adverbs. origin. greener o n the o ther side (of the fence) proverb - ORIGIN from or s uggested by Greek -graphikos, from Grappelli /gra'pEli/, Stephane (1908-97), French jazz other people's lives or situations always seem better grap/1e 'writing, drawing'; partly from ·GRAPHVor violinist. W ith Django Reinhardt, h e founded the th an your own. not let t he grass grow under o ne's •GflAPH + -IC. grou p the Quintette du Hot Club de France in 1934. f e et not delay in acting or taking an opportunity. p ut o ut to grass put (an animal) out to graze. graphica cy /'grafik~si/ •noun !mass noun) the ability grapple ~ verb 1 {no obj.I engage in a close fight or • informal force (someone) to retire. to understand and use a map or graph. strugg le without weapons; wrestle: passers-by - DER Iv ATl v ES grassless adjective, grass-like - ORIGIN 1960s: from GRAPHIC, on th e pattern of g1·appled w itlz rl!e man aftel' the k11ife arrack. • lwi1h litei·acy and nwneracy. adjective. obj.I seize hold of (someone): he grappled r/Je young - OR IGIN Old English gra?s, of Germanic origin; graphical ~adjective 1 relating to or in the form of man a1'011nd rl1e tlll'oar. • (grapple with) struggle related to Dutch gras, German Gras, also ultimately a graph. to deal with or overcome (a difficulty or challenge): 2 relating to visual art or computer graphics. to GREEN and GROW. orhe1· rowm are srill grapp/i11gwirl1r/Je problem. 2 !with obj.) archaic seize or hold with a grappling hook. grassbird ~ noun a brown streaked wa rbler frequent- ·graphical ~combining form equivalent to ·GRAPHIC. •noun 1 an act of grappling. • informal a wrestling ing long grass and reed beds. • Family Sylviidae: genus gra phical user interface (abbrev.: GUI) •noun match. Megolurusof Australasia and Asia (also called MARSHBIRD), and Co".'Puting a visual way of interacting with a computer 2 an instrument fo r seizing hold of something; a Sphenoeocus ofer of southern Africa. ~stng items such as wind ows, icons, an d menus, used grappling hook. grassbox • noun a rigid receptacle on a lawnmower Ymost modern operating systems. - DERIVATIVES gra ppler noun. for collecting the cut grass. CO NSONANTS (continued): w we z zoo I she 3 decis ion 6 thin d this lJ r in g x loch tJ ch ip d3 j ar (seeoverforvowels) 1407 0 2 1mass noun! the use of affectation to impress; preten- tiousness: lie spoke simply, wir/Jour pl'erension. 2 lannb.J 1nformal used ironically to express annoyance or displeasure: he led me a prerty dance. - ORIGL-. amici p.n:~n ut ~.§1'.J:W >IA prE·t.,nsion I pre-vocational ~ '~~1Cd i~ !:::11·!~i.!-h (in the Sense 'act in 'li') · from Lati;, µraeverzr·' preceded, - - ORIGIN late Middle English: from medieval Lat in .. adverb las submodifierl informal to a moderately h igh hi nde r~:!.,ro1n ~~"" v1:;·J p.·.:evenire, from prae praeeemio(n-), from praetens· 'alleged', from the degree; fairly: lie looked pretry fi efor his age. ' befo r,J' -r 1'~~!1rt:: ·cc:11•1 verb praecendere (see PRETEND). .. noun (pl. pretties) informal an attractive thing, espe- preve nta~i ve .. ad1ect1ve & noun another term fo r pre-tension .. verb !with obj.I apply ten sion to (an cially a trinket: lie buys her toes of pretties-bang/es PREVENTIVE. object) before manufacture or use. • strengthen and rings. • used to refer in a condescending way to - DERIVATIVES prevent at ive ly adverb. (reinforced concrete) by applying tension to th e an attractive person: six pretties in sequined leotards. reinfo rcing rods before the concrete has set. .. verb (pretties, prettying, prettied) lwith obj.Jmake preventer .. noun a person or th ing that prevents - DER I VA TI VES pre-t e nsione r noun. pretty or attractive: she'll be all prertied up and ready somet h ing: a powel'·surge pl'eve11ce1·. • Sailing an extra to go in an hour. line o r wire rigged to support a piece of rigging p retentious .. adjective attempting to impress by under strain, or to hold the boom and prevent it from affecting greater importance or merit than is actu- - P H RA SES pretty much (or ne arly or well) infomal very nearly: tile case is pretty well over. a pretty gybing. ally possessed: preeenrious arr films I the pretentious jm·gon of wine expens. penny informal a large sum of mo ney. pretty pleas e prevention .. noun [mass noun! the action of stopping - DERIVATIV ES pretentiously adverb, pret e ntious- used as a wheedling form of request. be sitting something from happening or arising: crime preven- ness noun. pretty informal be in an advantageou s situation: if sJ1e rion I tire treatmellt and prevention of AIDS. - ORIGIN mid 19th cent.: from French precemieux, could gee sponsors, s/Je would be sitting pretty. - PHRASES prevention is better t h an cure (or US a n from p1·ecention (see P RETENSION). - DER IVAT IV ES prettily adverb, prettiness noun, o unce of p revention Is w orth a p o und of cure) prettyish adjective. proverb it's easier to stop something happening in preter- /'pr i:ta/ .. combining form more t han: preeer· - ORI G IN Old English pra>ttig; re lated to Middle the first place t han to repair the damage after it has narural. Dutch pe.-ricll 'brisk, clever', obsolete Dutch pretrig happened. - ORIG I N from Latin p raetel''past, beyond'. 'humorou s, sporty', from a West Germanic base preventive .. adjective designed to keep something p reterite /'pr£t(a)nt/ (US also preterit) Grammar mean ing 'trick'. The sen se development 'deceitful, u ndesirable such as illness or harm from occurring: .. adjective expressing a past action or state. cun ning, clever, skilful, admirable, pleasing, nice' has preventive medicine. .. noun a simple past tense o r form. parallels in adject ives such as canny, fine, nice, e tc. .. noun a medicine or other treat ment designed to - ORIG I N Middle English (in the sense'bygone, pretty boy .. noun inf0<mal, ohen derogatoiy a foppish or prevent disease or ill health. former'): from Latin praetericus 'gone by', past effeminate man. - DERIVATIVES preventiv ely adverb. participle of praeteri1·e, from praeter ' past, beyond'+ ire'go'. pretty-face wallaby .. noun another t erm fo r preventive d etention 1> noun [mass noun! Law the WHIPTA IL WALLAB Y. imprisonment of a person with the aim of prevent ing preterition /,pri:ta'rrJ(a)n/ .. noun [mass noun! the action of p assing over or d isregarding a matter, espe- pretzel f'prets(a)l/ .. noun a crisp biscuit baked in t he them from committing further offences or of main- cially th e rhetorical technique of making summary form of a knot or stick and flavoured with salt. taining public order. mention of something by professing to omit it. .. verb (pretzels, pretze ling, pretzeled) lwilh obj.IN.Amer. preverbal .. adjective 1 exist ing or occurr ing before - OR IG IN lat e 16th cem .: from late Latin twist, bend, or contort: lie fou nd cite make pretzeled the development of speech: preverba/ communi· praeteritio(n·), from praeterfre 'pass, go by'. imo a tangle of knots. cation. prete rm Medicine .. adjective born or occurring after a - ORI G IN mid 19th cent. (originally US): from German 2 Grammar occurring before a verb: pre verbal pal'Cicles. pregnancy significantly shorter than normal, espe- Pretzel. preview .. noun an opportunity to view something cially afte r no more than 37 weeks o f pregnancy. prevail .. verb [no obi.J 1 prove more powerful or before it is acquired or becomes generally available: .. adverb after a short pregnancy; prematurely: babies superior: it is Jiard fo r logic to prevail ovel' emotion. I /Jave photos of the goods if anyone wo11 /d like a pre- bol'll pretem1 al'e likely to lack surfactant in tlze lu11gs. • be widespread or current in a particular area or view. • a showing of a film, exhibition, etc. before preterm it /,pri:ta'm1t/ .. verb (pret e rmits, preter· at a particular time: a f riendly atmosphere prevailed its official opening. • a trailer for a film. • a publicity mitting, pretermitted) !with obj.I archaic 1 omit to among the ci·owds. article or review of a forthcoming fi lm, book, etc., do or mention: some points of conduct we adv isedly 2 (preva il on/upon) persuade (someone) to d o based on an advance viewing. • Computing a facil ity p1·eren11it. somet hing: she was p1·evailed t1pon to give a11 account for inspect ing the appearance o f a document before 2 abandon (a custom or continuo us action) for a of her work. it is p rinted. t ime: the pleasant musical eve11ings were now enri.-ely - ORIG I N late Middle English: from Lat in praevalere .. verb !with obj.I display (a product, film, etc.) before it is prere.-mitted. 'h ave greater power', from prae 'before'+ vale1·e 'have made generally available: rlie company will p1·eview - DERIVA TIVE S pretermission /-'mrJ(a)n/ noun. power'. an enlranced version of ics da tabase. • see or inspect - ORI G I N late 15th cent.: from Latin p1·aerermittere, prevailing .. no u·n existing at a particular time; (someth ing) before it is used or becomes generally from praeter 'past, beyond'+ mitcere 'let go'. current: the 11nfavo11rable prevailing economic condi· available: rile teacher s/Jou/d preview reaching aids to rions. • having most appeal or influence; prevalent: ensure tlrae they are at the riglrt level. • comment on preternatural /,pri:ta'natJ(a)r(a)l/ (also praet e rnat· rlre prevailing mood witJ1in Wl1iteltall ci.-cies. (a forthcoming event): next week we'll be previewing ural) .. adjective beyond what is normal or natural: - D ER IV AT IV ES prevailingly adverb. the new season. autumn had ar.-ived w itJ1 p.-eternatitral speed. - DE R IV ATIVES previewer noun. - DE RI V A TIVE S pret e rnatura lly adverb. prevailing wind .. no un a wind fro m the direct ion pre t e st .. noun a prelim inary test or trial. that is predominant or most usual at a particular Pre vin f'prEvin/. Andre (George) (b.1929), German- p .. verb lwith obj.I carry out a preliminary test or trial of: place or season. born American conductor, pianist, and composer. pl'ior to its use, the questionnaire was pretested on two He is most famou s as a conductor, notably with p revalence .. noun !mass noun! the fact or condition the London Symphony Orchest ra (1968- 79), the groups of trainees. of being prevalent; commo nness: the prevalence of Pimburgh Symphony Orchestra (1976-86), and the prete xt .. noun a reason given in justification of obesity in adults. Royal Ph ilharmo nic Orchestra (1987-91). a course of action that is not the real reason: rlze pre vale nt f'prev(a)l(a)nt/ .. adjective lattrib.I wide- rebels J1ad tlze perfect pretext for making cl1eir move I previous .. adjective 1 Jattrib.J existing or occurring spread in a particular area or at a particular t ime: tJ1e before in time or order: she looked ei1·ed after lre1· he called round on tlie pretext of asking aftel' he.- social ills prevalent in society today. • archaic predomi- mother. exertions of Cl\e previoLU evening I tire boat's previous nant; powerful. owner. - O R IGIN early 16th cent .: from Latin praetexws 'out· - DE R IV ATIVES pre va le ntly adverb. ward display', from the verb praecexere 'to disgu ise', 2 informal overhasty in acting: I admit I may J1a11e been - O R IG I N late 16th cent.: from Latin praevalenr·'hav- from prae 'before' + texere 'weave'. a bit previous. ing greater power', from t he verb praeva/ere (see .. noun [mass noun! Brit. informal previous convictions; a cri m- pretor .. noun US spelling of PRA ETOR. PREVAIL) . inal record: he's got previo11s- theft and wounding. Pretoria /prr'to:ria/ the administrative capital of pre varica te /pn 'vanke1t/ .. verb lno obj.I speak or act - PHRA SES p revious t o before: the month previous to South Africa; pop. 1,679,200 (est. 2009). It was in an evasive way: he seemed to p1·evaricace when publication. founded in 185 s by Marth inus Wessel Pretorius joumalists asked pointed q11esrions. - O R IG IN early 17th cent.: from Latin praevi11s'going (1819-190 1), the first President of the South African - DERlVATIV ES pre varication noun, pre va rica tor before' (from prae 'before'+ via 'way')+ -ous. Republic, and named after his father Andries. noun. previous ly .. adverb at a previous or earlier t ime; pre toria n .. adjective & noun US spelling of PRAETORI AN. - O RI G I N m id 16th cent. (earlier (Middle English) before: m11seums and art galleries wlricl1 /Jad previ· as prevaricarion and prevaricaeor), in t he sense 'go ously been open ro rite p11blic I they discovered a Pretoria-Witwaters r and-Vere enig ing ast ray, transgress': from Latin praevaricac- 'walked previously unknown gene. /fa'ri:mkrl]/ former name (until 1995) for G AUTENG. crookedly, deviated', from the verb praevaricari, pret re at .. verb lw1th obj.I treat (something) with a fro m prae 'befo re' + varicari 'straddle'. previous question .. noun (in parliamentary chemical before use. proced ure) a motion to decide whether to vote on pre venie n t /pn'vl:mant/ .. adjective formal preced ing a main question, moved before the main question - D ER IVATI V ES pretreatment noun. in time or order; antecedent. itself is put. pretrial .. adjective in or relat ing to the period before - ORIGIN early 17th cent.: from Latin praevenient· a judicial trial: a pretrial Ilea ring. 'coming before', from t he verb praevenire, from prae previse /prt'v11.1z/ .. verb !with obj.J literaiy foresee or Pre ttify .. verb (prettifies, prettifying, prettified) 'before'+ venire 'come'. predict (an event): he !tad intelligence to previse the !with obj.I make (someone or something) appear su per- possible f11cure. p re v e nt .. verb Jwilh obj.J 1 keep (something) from ficially pretty or attract ive: nothing has been done to - DERIVATIVES previsio n noun, p re visional adjective. happening: action must be taken co prevent furcJrer - ORIGIN late 16t h cent.: from Latin praevis· 'foreseen, prettify rlre sire. accidents. • stop (someone) from doing something: - DERIVATIV ES prettification noun, pre t t ifie r noun. anticipated', from the verb p1·aevidere, from prae locks won't pl'evenr a deten nined bw ·g/ar fl·om get- 'before' + videre 'to see'. pre tty 1> adjective (prettie r, prettiest) 1 (of a person, ting in. especially a woman or child) attractive in a delicate 2 archaic (of God) go before (someone) with spiritual p revocalic /,pri:va'kaltk/ .. adjective occurring imme- way without being truly beautiful: a prerty lit tle girl guidance and help. diately before a vowel. witlr an engaging grin. • (of a thing) pleasing to t he - D E R IVAT IVES preventability noun, p reventa b le pre -voca tiona l .. adjective given or performed as eye or the ear: a pl'etry sw11111er dress. (also preventible) adjective. prepara tion for vocational training. CONSONANTS (continued): w w e z zoo J she 3 decision 8 t h in d t h is lJ ri n g x loch tJ ch ip d3 jar (seeovel'forvowels) 0 re-present I reprog1·am constituency or party): she became the first woman ucts. •an employee of a travel company who lives in from the verb repraehendere (see REPREH · to represent a South Wales mining valley.• act as a a resort and looks after the needs of its holidaymak· current sense dates from the early 18 th END) substitute for (someone), especially on an official ers. • a person chosen or elected to speak and act on. . cent. occasion: the Duke of Edinburgh was represented by behalf of others in a legislative assembly or delibera· reprise /~1'pri:z/ I> noun a repeated passage! · • a repet1t1on or further performance of the Countess Mountbatten. tive body. 11 a delegate who attends a conference, a stale reprise of past polemic. . s~. 2 constitute; amount to: this figure represents eleven negotiations, etc., so as to represent the interests of 1> verb [with obj.] repeat (a piece of music or · per cent of the company's total sales. •be a specimen another person or group. • a person who takes the performance). .a· ..•. or example of; typify: twenty parents, picked to repre· place of another on an official occasion. - ORI,G~N ea~·ll'.18th cent.: ~r~nch, literal!y;~a sent a cross section of Scottish life.• (be represented) 2 an example of a class or group: fossil representa· agam, femmme past participle of reprend. . be present in something to a particular degree: tives of lampreys and hagfishes. REPRIEVE). I e. abstraction is well represented in this exhibition. representatively adverb, representa· repro I> no~n (pl. repros) [us~. as modifier] inf~r~al• - DERIVATIVES 3 depict (a particular subject) in a work of art: santos tiveness noun. are small wooden figures representing saints. m[with reproduct10n or copy, particularly of a pie(repress 1> verb [with obj.J subdue (someone or ture: a Georgian repro cabinet. ·· e obj. and adverbial or infinitive] describe or portray in a par· something) by force: the uprisings were repressed. ticular way: the young were consistently represented ~ [mass n.oun] the reproduction of a documen · •restrain, prevent, or inhibit (the expression or image: in-house re pro and some finishing. as being in need of protection. • (of a sign or symbol) development of something): Isabel couldn't repress a have a particular signification; stand for: numbers sharp cry of fear. • suppress (a thought or desire) so re~roach 1> verb [wit.h obj.] e:press to (som.ecin~ 1-15 represent the red balls. • be a symbol or embodi· that it becomes or remains unconscious: the thought d1sap~roval of or dtsappomtment in their ad ment of: the three heads of Cerberus represent the that he had killed his brother was so terrible that he her friends reproached her for not thinkingt past, present, and future.• play (a role) in a theatri· repressed it. • Biology prevent the transcription of (a about her family I [with direct speech[ 'You knoiv cal production. gene). isn't true,' he reproached her. • (reproach,;· 4 formal state or point out clearly: it was represented to - DERIVATIVES represser noun, repressible adjective. with) accuse someone of: his wife reproa him that she would be an unsuitable wife. m[with clause] - ORIGIN Middle English (in the sense 'keep back with cowardice. •archaic censure onebuk allege; claim: the vendors have represented that such something objectionable'): from Latin repress- offence)., information is accurate. 'pressed back, checked', from the verb .reprimere, 1> noun [mass noun[ the expression of disapprcl ' - DERIVATIVES representability noun, represent· from re- 'back'+ premere 'to press'. disappointment: he gave her a look of rep· able adjective. noun] a farrago of warnings and pained re - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Old French repressed 1> adjective restrained or oppressed: • (a reproach to) a thing that makes representer or Latin repraesentare, from re-(express· repressed indigenous groups. • (of a thought or of (someone or something else) more ap ing intensive force)+ praesentare 'to present'. desire) kept suppressed and unconscious in one's elegance is a living reproach to our mind: repressed homosexuality.• • (Reproaches) (in the Roman Catholic re-present 1> verb [with obj.] present (something) again, the repression of thoughts or desires, especially especially for further consideration or in an altered set of antiphons and responses for Goo((sexual ones: a very repressed, almost Victorian, resenting the reproaches of Christ to his form: I will re-present Eikmeyer's model here. •pres· household. - PHRASES above (or beyond) ent (a cheque or bill) again for payment. - DERIVATIVES re-presentation noun. repression 1> noun [mass noun] the action of subduing criticism can be made; perfect. ·.·. someone or something by force. • the restraint, pre· - DERIVATIVES reproachable adjective,repr representation 1> noun [mass noun] 1 the action of vention, or inhibition of a feeling, quality, etc.:' the adjective, reproachingly adverb. . "., •. speaking or acting on behalf.of someone or the state repression of anger can be positively harmful. • the - ORIGIN Middle English: from Old French of being so represented: you may qualify for free legal action or process of suppressing a thought or desire (verb), from a-base meaning 'bring back cl representation. in oneself so that it remains unconsciciits. on Latin prope 'near'. 2 the description or portrayal of someone or something in a particular w~y:: the representation of a repressive 1> adjective (especially of social or politi· reproachful 1> adjective expressing disappr women in newspapers. • the depiction of someone cal system) inhibiting or restraining personal free· disappointment: she gave him a reproachfUi'f dam: a repressive regime. • inhibiting or preventing - DERIVATIVES reproachfully adverb, reproit or something in a work of art: Picasso is striving for the expression or awareness of thoughts or desires: a ness noun. some absolute representation of reality. 11 [count noun] repressive moral code. a picture, model, or other depiction of someone reprobate /'rsprabe1t/ 1> noun 1 an unprinci - DERIVATIVES repressively adverb, repressiveness person. ' or something: a striking representation of a vase of noun. 2 archaic (in Calvinism) a sinner who is tiotoff flowers. • (in some theories of perception) a mental state or concept regarded as corresponding to a thing repressor 1> noun Biochemistry a substance which acts on elect and is predestined to damnation. ·· perceived. · an operon to inhibit enzyme synthesis. 1> adjective 1 unprincipled: reprobate behaviour:' 3 (representations) formal statements made to an reprice 1> verb [with obj.] put a different price on (a 2 archaic (in Calvinism) predestined to damna authority, especially so as to communicate an opin· product or commodity). 1> verb [with obj.] archaic express or feel disapp ion or register a protest: the Law Society will make reprieve 1> verb [with obj.] cancel or postpone the neighbours reprobated his method of pro representations to the Lord Chancellor. m[count noun] a - DERIVATIVES reprobation·noun. punishment of (someone, especially someone con· statement or allegation: any buyer was relying on a - ORIGIN late Middle English (as a verb): fr· demned to death): under the new regime, prisoners representation that the tapes were genuine. under sentence of death were reprieved. • abandon or reprobat- 'disapproved', from the verb repr - ORIGIN late Middle English (in the sense 'image, from re- (expressing reversal) +prob are'' a postpone plans to close or abolish (something): the likeness'): from Old French representation or Latin threatened pits could be reprieved. reprocess 1> verb [with obj.J process (somethi repraesentatio(n-), from repraesentare 'bring before, 1> noun a cancellation or postponement of a punish· especially spent nuclear fuel) again or .diff exhibit' (see REPRESENT). ment. • a cancellation or postponement of an typically in order to reuse it. representational 1> adjective relating to or char· undesirable event: a mother who faced eviction has reproduce 1> verb [with obj.] 1 produce a copy acterized by representation: representational democ· been given a reprieve. works are reproduced on postcards and paste racy. • relating to or denoting art which aims to - ORIGIN late 15th cent. (as the past participle 11 [no obj., with adverblalJ be copied with a spe R depict the physical appearance of things. Contrasted repryed): from Anglo·Norman French repris, past degree of success: you'll be amazed to see With ABSTRACT. participle of reprendre, from Latin re- 'back'+ halftones reproduce. • produce somethi - DERIVATIVES representationally adverb. prehendere 'seize'. The insertion of -v- (16th cent.) similar to (something else) in a different. representationalism 1> noun [mass noun] 1 the prac· remains unexplained. Sense development has under· context: the problems are difficult to repfodit tice or advocacy of representational art. gone a reversal, from the early meaning 'send back to laboratory. · 2 Philosophy another term for REPRESENTATIONISM. prison', via 'postpone a legal process', to the ctirrent 2 (of an organism) produce offspring liy as" - DERIVATIVES representationalist adjective & noun. sense 'rescue from·impending punishment'. or asexual process: bacteria normally divide il representation ism 1> noun [mass noun] Philosophy the reprimand /'rspr1ma:nd/ ~ noun a formal expression reproduce themselves every twenty minutes r doctrine that thought is the manipulation of mental of disapproval. an individual needs to avoid being eaten until representations which correspond to external states 1> verb [with obj.J address a reprimand to: officials were reproduced. reprimanded for poor work. - DERIVATIVES reproducer noun, reproducib or objects. - ORIGIN mid 17th cent.: from French reprimande, via noun, reproducible adjective, reproducibly ad - DERIVATIVES representationist noun. representative 1> adjective 1 typical of a class, Spanish from Latin reprimenda, 'things to be held reproduction 1> noun [mass noun] 1 the actio .. in check', neuter plural gerundive of reprimere (see process of copying something: the cost of cofou, group, or body of opinion: Churchill was not properly representative of influential opinion in Britain. REPRESS). reproduction in publication is high. • [count n.oun reprint 1> verb [with obj.I print again or in a different copy of a work of art, especially a print or·pho! •containing typical examples of many or all types: a form: his book was reprinted several times after his graph of a painting. • [as modifier[ made to irnit representative sample of young people in Scotland. style of an earlier period or of a particular c 2 (of a legislative assembly or deliberative body) death. consisting of people chosen to act and speak on 1> noun an act of printing more copies of a work. • a reproduction French classical beds. •the q .. copy of a book or other material that has been reproduced sound: the design was changed to a behalf of a wider group. • (of a government or politi· cal system) based on elected or chosen representa· reprinted. • an offprint. louder reproduction. - DERIVATIVES reprinter noun. 2 the production of offspring by a sexual or as tives: free elections and representative democracy. process.,: 3 serving as a portrayal or symbol of something: the reprisal 1> noun an act of retaliation: three youths show would be more representative of how women died in the reprisals which followed I [mass noun! the reproductive 1> adjective relating to or effecting really are.• (of art) representational:· the bust threat of reprisal. • [mass noun] historical the forcible reproduction: the female reproductive system. . ·· involves a high degree of representative abstraction. seizure of a foreign subject or their goods as an act - DERIVATIVES reproductively adverb, reprodu •. 4 Philosophy relating to mental representation. of retaliation. ness noun, reproductivity noun. ' · 1> noun 1 a person chosen or appointed to act or speak - ORIGIN late Middle English: from Anglo· Norman reprogram (also reprogramme) 1> verb (reproj. for another or others, in particular: • an agent of a French reprisaille, from medieval Latin reprisalia grams, reprogramming, reprogrammed; US a sh. firm who travels to potential clients to sell its prod· (neuter plural), based on Latin repraehens- 'seized', reprograms, reprograming, reprogramed) [wit VOWELS: a cat a: arm s bed s: hair a ago a: her 1 sit i cosy i: see n hot::i: saw A run u put u: too AI my