Match Group, LLC v. Bumble Trading Inc.

Western District of Texas, txwd-6:2018-cv-00080

Exhibit 6

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EXHIBIT 6 Coco C410 av 19000 Ana Document 76 0 Filed 04126/10 Dace 2 of a America's Best-Selling Dictionary stradoxona Sa to ta n ti derni- 5513 The use SAE 3 a San (ESCE 1931 enero MYSEBOUW Celestin oo i els Merriam- Webster's Collegiate Dictionary h dd Eleventh Edition ou SE GE su Ruments steder utenla artes mares ok BRD t the dse oth the Ca ffen e ntence Bourait (1861) a S CESOS AN ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICAⓇ COMPANY A GENUINE MERRIAM-WEBSTER The name Webster alone is no guarantee of excellence. It is used by a number of publishers and may serve mainly to mislead an unwary buyer. Merriam-WebsterTM is the name you should look for when you consider the purchase of dictionaries or other fine reference books. It carries the reputation of a company that has been publishing since 1831 and is your assurance of quality and authority. Copyright © 2014 by Merriam-Webster, Incorporated Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary. - Eleventh ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-87779-807-1 (Laminated unindexed: alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-87779-808-8 (Jacketed hardcover unindexed: alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-87779-809-5 (Jacketed hardcover with digital download: alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-87779-810-) (Leatherlook with digital download: alk. paper) ISBN 978-0-87779-811-8 (Luxury Leather) ISBN 978-0-87779-813-2 (Canadian) ISBN 978-0-87779-814-9 (International) 1. English language-Dictionaries. I. Title: Collegiate dictionary. II. Merriam- Webster, Inc. PE1628.M36 2003 423-dc21 2003003674 CIP Dictionary. Eleventh Edition, principal copyright Merriam-Webster's Collegiate 2003 COLLEGIATE is a registered trademark of Merriam-Webster. Incorporated All rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyrights hereon may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means-graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying. taping, or information storage and retrieval systems-without written permission of the publisher. Made in the United States of America 19th Printing Quad Graphics Versailles KY December 2014 Case A c ument 76-8 Filed 04/2012 ayesory alligator clip. all-purpose 33 alligator clip n (ca. 1941): a spring-loaded clip that has jaws resem bling an alligator's and is used for making temporary electrical connes- tions alligator pear n [by folk etymology fr. Sp aguacate – mare a AVOCADO] (1763): AVOCADO alligator snapping turtle n (1882): a turtle (Macroclemys temminckii) of Southeastern U.S. rivers that may reach nearly 150 pounds (68 kilo- grams) in weight and 31 inches (79 centimeters) in length — called also alligator snapper all-im.por.tant \ol-im-por-tnt, -tənt\ adj (1787): of very great or greatest importance (anquestion> all-in lol-'in\ adj (1890) 1 chiefly Brit: ALL-INCLUSIVE 2 chiefly Brit: being almost without restrictions wrestling) all in adj (1903): TIRED, EXHAUSTED (after a day of wood-splitting he was all in all-in-clu.sive lol-in-'klü-siv, -ziv\ adj (1850): including everything (a broader and more nearly ~ view) — all-in-clusive-ness n al-liter-ate la-'li-tə- rāt\ vb -at-ed; -at-ing [back-formation fr. allitera- tion] vi (1776) 1: to form an alliteration 2: to write or speak alliter- atively ~ vt: to arrange or place so as to make alliteration (sylla- bles in a sentence) al-lit-er.a-tion \a-li-tə-'rā-shan\n [ad- + L littera letter] (ca. 1624): the repetition of usu. initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables (as wild and woolly, threatening throngs) — called also head rhyme, initial rhynie al lit.er-a-tive la-'li-tər-ə-tiv, -tə,rā-tiv adj (1764): of. relating to, or marked by alliteration - alulit-er-a-tive.ly ady al-li-um Va-lê-am\n [NL, genus name, fr. L. garlic] (1597): any of a large genus (Allium) of bulbous herbs of the lily family including the onion, garlic, chive, leek, and shallot all-night Wol-'nīt\ adj (1886) 1: lasting throughout the night an poker game) 2: open throughout the night andiner all-night-er l'ol-ni-tər\n (1964): something that lasts all night; specif: an all-night study session ailo- — see ALL- al-lo-an-ti.body Va-lo-'an-ti-,bä-deln (1964): an antibody produced following introduction of an alloantigen into the system of an individu- al of a species lacking that particular antigen al-lo-an-ti-gen \a-lo-'an-ti-jan\ n (1964): an antigen present only in some individuals (as of a particular blood group) of a species and capa- ble of inducing the production of an alloantibody by individuals which lack it al-lo.ca.ble \'a-lə-kə-bəl\ adj (1916): capable of being allocated al-lo.cate Va-lə-,kāt\ vt -cat.ed; -cat.ing [ML allocatus, pp. of allo- care, fr. L ad- + locare to place, fr. locus place -- more at STALL] (ca. 1641) 1: to apportion for a specific purpose or to particular persons or things: DISTRIBUTE (~ tasks among human and automated com- ponents) 2: to set apart or earmark: DESIGNATE (a section of the building for special research purposes) -al-lo.cat.able - kā-tə-ball adj - al.lo.ca.tion \a-la-'ka-shən\ n - al.lo.ca-tor \'a-la-, kā-tər\n al-lo.cuition \a-lə-'kyü-shən\n [L allocution-, allocutio, fr. alloqui to speak to. fr. ad- + loqui to speak] (1615): a formal speech; esp. an au- thoritative or hortatory address all of adv (1829): FULLY (she's all of 20 years old) al-log.a.mous la-'lä-gə-məsl adj (ca. 1890): reproducing by cross- fertilization - al.log.a-my \-mēn1 al-lo-ge.ne.ic \a-lo-ja-'nē-ik\ also al.lo.gen.ic -'je-nikl adj [all- + -geneic (as in syngeneic] (1961): involving, derived from, or being indi- viduals of the same species that are sufficiently unlike genetically to in- teract antigenically skin grafts) — compare SYNGENEIC al.lo.graft \'a-la-graft\ n (1961): a homograft between allogeneic indi- viduals — allograft vt al-lo-graph 'a-la-, graf\n (1951) 1: a letter of an alphabet in a partic- ular shape (as A or a) 2: a letter or combination of letters that is one of several ways of representing one phoneme (as pp in hopping repre- senting the phoneme \p -al-lo.graphic \a-la-'gra-fik adj al-lom.e.try la-'lä-mə-trēl n (1936): relative growth of a part in rela- tion to an entire organism or to a standard; also: the measure and study of such growth — al-lo.me.tric \a-lə-'me-trik\ adj al-lo.morph Val-a-, morf\n [allo- + morpheme] (1945): one of a set of forms that a morpheme may take in different contexts (the -s of cats. the -en of oxen, and the zero suffix of sheep ares of the English plu- ral morpheme) - al-lo.mor-phic la-la-'mòr-fik\ adj — allo-mor- phism \a-lə-,mor-,fi-zəm\n al-longe \a-'lo"zh\n [F, lit., lengthening] (ca. 1859): RIDER 2a al-lo.pathic la-la-pa-thik\ adj [G allopatisch, fr. Allopathie an allo- pathic system of medicine, fr. allo-all- + -pathie -pathyl (1830): relat- ing to or being a system of medicine that aims to corubat disease by us- ing remedies (as drugs or surgery) which produce effects that are dif- ſerent from or incompatible with those of the disease being treated al-lo pat ric la-la-'pa-trik\ adj (all- + Gk patra fatherland, fr. patēr fa- ther — more at FATHER) (1942): occurring in different geographical areas or in isolation speciation) -- compare SYMPATRIC — al·lo- pat-ri.cal.ly \-tri-k(a)lēady — al-lop-a-try 12-"lä-pa-tre\n al-lo.phane Va-la-fān\n [Gk allophanēs appearing otherwise, fr. all- + phainesthai to appear, middle voice of phainein to show — more at FANCY] (ca. 1821): an amorphous translucent mineral of various col- ors often occurring in incrustations or stalactite forms and consisting of a hydrous aluminum silicate al.lo.phone Va-lə-,fon\n [allo- + phone] (1938): one of two or more variants of the same phoneme (the aspirated \p of pin and the unaspi- rated \p of spin are of the phoneme \p -al-lo-phon.ic la-la- 'fä-nik\ adj al-lo.poly.ploid \a-lo-'pa-li-,ploid\n (1928): a polyploid individual or strain having a chromosome set composed of two or more chromo- some sets derived more or less complete from different species – al- lopolyploid adj - al-lo-poly.ploi dy liploi-dē\ 12 al-lo-pu.ri.nolla-lö-'pyur-a-,nól, - nõl\n [all- + purine + '-ol] (1964): a drug CSHAN40 used to promote excretion of uric acid all-or-none lol-ər-nən\ adj (1900): marked either by entire or com- plete operation or effect or by none at all response of a nerve cell) all-or-noth-ing H-na-thin\ adj (1765) 1: ALL-OR-NONE 2 a: ac- cepting no less than everything (he's an ~ perfectionist) b: risking everything (an combat strategy) al 10-saur Va-la-,sor\ n (ca. 1934): any of a family (Allosauridae) of large theropod dinosaurs usu. having three clawed digits on each arm and leg and living from the late Jurassic to the early Cretaceous period; +ST LLOSAURUS allosaurus \a-la-'sör-əs\ n [NL, fr. Gk all- + sauros lizard] (1886) any of a genus (Allosaurus) of very large carnivorous No. American theropod dinosaurs of the late Jurassic period al-lo.ste.ric a-lo-ister-ik, stir- adj (all- + steric] (1962): of, relating to, undergoing, or being a change in the shape and activity of a protein (as an enzyme) that results from combination with another substance at a point other than the chemically active site — al.lo ste.ri.cal.ly \-i-k(ə-blē\ ady — al.lo ste.ry Va-lo- ster-ē, stir-In al-lot lo-'lät\ vt al-lot-ted; al-lot.ting [ME alotten, fr. AF aloter, fr. a- (fr. Lad-) + lot, of Gmc origin; akin to OE hlot lot] (150) 1: to assign as a share or portion (~10 minutes for the speech) 2: to distribute by or as if by lot (seats to the press) - al·lot.tern al-lo-te.tra.ploid \a-lo-te-traploid\ n (1930): AMPHIDIPLOID — al- lo-te.tra.ploi.dy liploi-de\n al-lot-ment \a-'lät-mənt\n (1574) 1: the act of allotting: APPORTION- MENT 2: something that is allotted; esp, chiefly Brit:a plot of land let to an individual for cultivation al-lo-trope \'a-la-, trop\n [ISV, back-formation fr. allotropyl (1876): a form showing allotropy al-lot-ro-py \a-'lä-trə-pēl n, pl -pies (1850): the existence of a sub- stance and esp. an element in two or more different forms (as of crys- tals) usu. in the same phase-allo-trop-ic \a-lə-'trä-pik\ adj all' ot.ta.va \a-la-'tä-va, ä-lo- ady or adj [lt, at the octave] (ca. 1823): OTTAVA al-lot-tee la lä-'tē\ n (1846): one to whom an allotment is made al-lo.type 'a-la-,tīpn (1960): an alloantigen that is part of a plasma protein (as an antibody) — al·lo-typ.ic \a-la-'ti-pik\ adj - al.lo-typ- i.cal.ly \-pi-k(ə-)lē\ ady - al-lo.typy V'a-la-ti-pē\n all-out Vol-'aut\ adj (1908) 1: made with maximum effort: THOR- OUGHGOING an effort to win the contest) 2: FULL-BLOWN 2 all out adv (1895): with full determination or enthusiasm: with maxi- mum effort - used chiefly in the phrase go all out all over l'oi-ā-vər\ adj (1796): covering the whole extent or surface (a sweater with an ~ pattern Zallover n (1838) 2, 1: an embroidered, printed, or lace fabric with a de- sign covering most of the surface 2: a pattern or design in which a single unit is repeated so as to cover an entire surface 'all over adv (150) 1: over the whole extent (decorated all over with a flower pattern) 2: EVERYWHERE (looked all over for the book) 3: in every respect: THOROUGHLY (she is her mother all over 2all over prep (1912) 1: in eagerly affectionate, attentive, or aggressive pursuit of the band's fans were all over them) 2: in or into a state marked by all-out criticism of the press was all over the coach after the loss al-low lə-'laúl vb [ME, fr. AF aluer, alouer to place, apportion, allow, fr. MF allocare - more at ALLOCATE] vt (140) 1a: to assign as a share or suitable amount (as of time or money) an hour for lunch) b: to reckon as a deduction or an addition (a gallon for leakage) 2 a chiefly Southern & Midland: to be of the opinion: THINK b dial: SAY, STATE C: to express an opinion - usu. used with as how or that 3 chiefly Southern & Midland: INTEND, PLAN 4: ADMIT, CONCEDE (must that money causes problems in marriage) 5 a: PERMIT (doesn't people to smoke in his home) b: to forbear or neglect to restrain or prevent the dog to roam) ~ vi 1: to make a possibil- ity: ADMIT - used with of evidence that of only one conclusion> 2: to give consideration to circumstances or contingencies – used with for (for expansion> al-low-able \a-'laú-ə-bəl\ adj (150): PERMISSIBLE ~ income tax de- ductions) — allow.ably l-blē\ ady lal-low.ance \a-'lau-ən(t)s\ n (140) 1 a: a share or portion allotted or granted b: a sum granted as a reimbursement or bounty or for ex- penses salary includes cost-of-living >: esp: a sum regularly provid- ed for personal or household expenses (each child has an ~> Cia fixed or available amount (provide an of time for recreation) d: a reduction from a list price or stated price (a trade-in > 2: an im- posed handicap (as in a horse race) 3: an allowed dimensional differ- ence between mating parts of a machine 4: the act of allowing: PER- MISSION 5:a taking into account of mitigating circumstances or con- tingencies (the plan makes no for bad weather) 2allowance vt -anced; -anc-ing (1758) 1 archaic: to put on a fixed al- lowance (as of food and drink) 2 archaic: to supply in a fixed or reg- ular quantity al low-ed-ly \a-'lau-ad-le\ ady (1602): by allowance: ADMITTEDLY al.lox.an la-'lak-san\n [G, fr. Allantoin + Oxalsäure oxalic acid + -an] (1853): a crystalline compound C4H2N-04 causing diabetes mellitus when injected into experimental animals al.loy Va-loi also -'loi\ n [F aloi, fr. OF alei, fr. aleir to combine, fr. L alligare to bind -- more at ALLY) (1604) 1: the degree of mixture with base metals: FINENESS 2: a substance composed of two or more metals or of a metal and a nonmetal intimately united usu. by being fused together and dissolving in each other when molten; also: the state of union of the components 3 a: an admixture that lessens val- ue b: an impairing alien element 4: a compound, mixture, or union of different things an ethnic of many peoples) 5 archaic: a metal mixed with a more valuable metal to give durability or some other de- sired quality 2al-loy la-'loi also 'a- loi\ vt (1661) 1 a: TEMPER, MODERATE b: to impair or debase by admixture 2: to reduce the purity of by mixing with a less valuable metal 3: to mix so as to form an alloy ~vi: to lend itself to being alloyed (iron 5 well) all-pow.er.ful Vol-'paủ(-a)r-fəl\ adj (1667): having complete or sole power an leader> all-purpose \-'pər-pəsı adj (1928): suited for many purposes or uses lal abut '\ kitten, F table lər\ further \a ash lā\ ace lä\ mop, mar \au\ out \ch chin \el bet lē\ easy \g\ go \i\ hit \i\ice v\job \n\ sing \o\ go \o\ law Voi\ boy \th\thin th\ the \ü\ loot lú\ foot \yi yet \zh\ vision, beige \k,, ce, ie, see Guide to Pronunciation assn • asterisk 75 cial inquest b: an action to be decided by such an inquest, the writ for instituting it, or the verdict or finding rendered by the jury 2 a: the former periodical sessions of the superior courts in English coun- ties for trial of civil and criminal cases --usu. used in pl. b: the time or place of holding such a court, the court itself, or a session of it - usu. used in pl. assn abbr association assoc abbr associate; associated: association as.so.ci-ate la-'sö-she-āt, -se-vb -at-ed; -at-ing (ME associat associ- ated, fr. L associatus, pp. of associare to unite, fr. ad- + sociare to join, fr. socius companion more at SOCIAL] vt (140) 1: to join as a part- ner, friend, or companion 2 obs: to keep company with: ATTEND 3: to join or connect together: COMBINE 4: to bring together or into relationship in any of various intangible ways (as in memory or imagi- nation) ~ vi 1: to come or be together as partners, friends, or com-,panions 2: to combine or join with other parts: UNITE syn see JOIN ?as.so-ciate \o-'só-sbē-at, -se, āt, -shot\ adj (140) 1: closely connect- ed (as in function or office) with another 2: closely related esp. in the mind 3: having secondary or subordinate status membership in a society> Pas-so.ciate same as '\n (1533) 1: one associated with another: as a: PARTNER, COLLEAGUE b: COMPANION, COMRADE 2 a: an entry- level member (as of a learned society, professional organization, or profession) b: EMPLOYEE, WORKER 3 often cap: a degree conferred esp. by a junior college in arts) -as.so.clate.ship - ship\n associate professor n (1819): a member of a college or university faculty who ranks above an assistant professor and below a professor associate professorship n as.so.ci-a-tion \a-,so-se-la-shan, -she-In (1535) 1 a: the act of associ- ating b: the state of being associated: COMBINATION, RELATIONSHIP 2:an organization of persons having a common interest: SOCIETY 3: something linked in memory or imagination with a thing or person 4: the process of forming mental connections or bonds between sensa- tions, ideas, or memories 5: the aggregation of chemical spccics to form (as with hydrogen bonds) loosely bound complexes 6: a major unit in ecological community organization characterized by essential uniformity and usu, by two or more dominant species--as.so.ci.a- tion.al \-sh(a-)nºl\ adj association area n (ca. 1909): an area of the cerebral cortex that functions in linking and coordinating the sensory and motor areas association football n (1873): SOCCER as.so.ci-a-tion.ism la-So-se-la-sha-, ni-zam, -só-she-in (1875): a re- ductionist school of psychology that holds that the content of con- sciousness can be explained by the association and reassociation of ir- reducible sensory and perceptual elements as so.ci.a.tion ist H--sh(a-)nist\n-asso-ci-a-tion-is-tic l-a-sha-'nis-tik\ adj as so-cla-tive la-sb-she., ā-tiv.-se, -sha-tiv\ adi (1804) 1: of or relat- ing to association esp. of ideas or images 2: dependent on or acquired by association or learning 3: of, having, or being the property of combining to the same mathematical result regardless of the grouping of an expression's elements given that the order of those clements is preserved (addition is since (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)--as.so.cia- tive.ly adv -as.so.cia.tiv.i.ty \-,so-she-a-li-və-tē, -se-, -sha-'ti-In associative learning n (1957): a learning process in which discrete ideas and percepts become linked to one another associative neuron n (1935): INTERNEURON as soll l-isol(-a)/\ VI (ME, fr. AF assoilé, pp. of assoudre to absolve, fr. L absolvere) (130) 1 archaic: ABSOLVE, PARDON 2 archaic: ACQUIT. CLEAR 3 archaic: EXPLATE -as.soil.ment \-mant\n, archaic as.so.nance Va-sa-nan(t)\n [F, fr. L assonare to answer with the same sound, fr. ad- + sonare to sound, fr. sonus sound more at SOUND) (1727) 1: resemblance of sound in words or syllables 2 a: relatively close juxtaposition of similar sounds esp. of vowels b: repetition of vowels without repetition of consonants (as in stony and holy) used as an alternative to rhyme in verse-as.so.nant l-nant adj or n-as.so.nant-al \a-sa-nan-tº' \ adj as soon as conj (14c): immediately at or shortly after the time that (call as soon as you get there) as sort la-sort\ vb (MF assortir, fr. a-(fr. L ad-) + sorte sort) vr (15c) 1: to distribute into groups of a like kind: CLASSIFY 2: to supply with an assortment (as of goods) ~Vi 1to agree in kind: HARMONIZE 2: to keep company: ASSOCIATE --as-sort-ern as.sor-ta-tive la-'sor-ta-tiv adj (1897): being nonrandom mating based on like or unlike characteristics - as-sor.ta-tive.ly l-lel ady as sort.ed l-'sör-tad\ adj (ca. 1797) 1: suited esp. by nature or char- acter (an ill-assorted pair) 2: consisting of various kinds choco- lates) as sortment - sort-mant\n (1611) 1a: the act of assorting b: the State of being assorted 2: a collection of assorted things or persons ASSR abbr Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic asst abbr 1 assistant 2 assorted asstd abbr 1 assented 2 assorted as suage \a-'swaj also swāzh or -'swäzhvi as suaged; as suag- ing (ME aswagen, fr. AF asuager, fr. VL *assuaviare, fr. I ad- + suavis sweet more at swEET) (140) 1: to Jessen the intensity of (some- thing that pains or distresses): EASE (unable to their grief> 2: PACIFY, QUIET (vainly strove ... to an implacable foe - Edward Gibbon) 3: to put an end to by satisfying: APPEASE, QUENCH (as- suaging his thirsty syn see RELIEVE - as suage.ment l-mantin as sua.sive lo-'swa-siv. -ziv adj (1708): SOOTHING. CALMING as.sume la'süm vt as-sumed, as suming [ME, fr. L assumere. fr. ad- + sumere to take more at CONSUME) (150) 1 a: to take up or in: RECEIVE b: 10 take into partnership, employment, or use 2 a: to take to or upon oneself: UNDERTAKE (responsibility> b: PUT ON, DONC: to place oneself in a position) 3: SEIZE, USURP (control) 4: to pretend to have or be: FEIGN (assumed an air of con- fidence in spite of her dismay) 5: to take as granted or true: SUP- POSE (I he'll be there) 6: to take over (the debts of another) as one's own -as.sumabil.j.ty - sü-ma-'bi-la-tēl n as.sum-able \-'sü-mə-bəl\ adj-as.sum-ably l-blēl adv syn ASSUME, AFFECT, PRETEND, SIMULATE, FEIGN, COUNTERFEIT. SHAM mean to put on a false or deceptive appearance. ASSUME often implies a justifiable motive rather than an intent to deceive (assumed an air of cheerfulness around the patients). AFFECT implies making a false show of possessing, using, or feeling (affected an interest in art). PRETEND implies an overt and sustained false appearance (pretended that nothing had happened). SIMULATE suggests a close imitation of the appearance of something (cosmetics that simulate a suntan). FEIGN implies more artful invention than PRETEND, less specific mim- icry than SIMULATE Jeigned sickness). COUNTERFEIT implies achiev- ing the highest degree of verisimilitude of any of these words an ac- tor counterfeiting drunkenness). SHAM implies an obvious falseness that fools only the gullible (shammed a most unconvincing limp>. as.sum.ing adj (1692): PRETENTIOUS, PRESUMPTUOUS as-sump.sit \o-'som(p)-sot\n [NL, he undertook, fr. L assumere to un- dertake) (1590) 1:an express or implied promise or contract not un- der seal on which an action may be brought 2 a: a former commons law action brought to recover damages alleged from the breach of an assumpsit b: an action to recover damages for breach of a contract as.sumption la 'sam(p)-shan\ n [ME, fr. LL assumption, assumptio taking up, fr. L assumere] (130) 1a: the taking up of a person into heaven b cap: August 15 observed in commemoration of the As. sumption of the Virgin Mary 2: a taking to or upon oneself (the of a new position) 3: the act of laying claim to or taking possession of something (the of power) 4: ARROGANCE. PRETENSION 5 a: an assuming that something is true b:a fact or statement (as a proposi- tion, axiom, postulate, or notion) taken for granted 6: the taking over of another's debts as.sump-tive \a- sərn(p)-tiv\ adj (1611): of, relating to, or based on as- sumption as.sur.ance la 'shur-an(t)\ n (14c) 1: the act or action of assuring: as a: PLEDGE, GUARANTEE b: the act of conveying real property: also: the instrument by which it is conveyed C chiefly Brit: INSUR- ANCE 2: the state of being assured: as a: SECURITY b: a being certain in the mind (the puritan's of salvation) C: confidence of mind or manner: easy freedom from self-doubt or uncertainty: also: excessive self-confidence: BRASHNESS, PRESUMPTION 3: something that inspires or tends to inspire confidence <gave repeated of good- will syn see CONFIDENCE as sure lo'shur vt as.sured; as.suring (ME, ſr. AF asseurer, assur- er, fr. ML assecurare, fr. L ad- + securus securel (140) 1: to make safe (as from risks or against overthrow): INSURE 2: to give confidence to and hereby we know that we are of the truth, and shall our hearts-1 Jn 3:19(AV) 3: to make sure or certain: CONVINCE (glancing back to himself no one was following> 4: to inform pos- itively (1 you that we can do it) 5: to make certain the coming or attainment of: GUARANTEE worked hard to accuracy) syn see 1 ENSURE 'as.sured \a- shůrd\ adj (150) 1: characterized by certainty or securi- ty: GUARANTEED an market) 2 a: SELF-ASSURED b: SELF- SATISFIED 3: satisfied as to the certainty or truth of a matter (rest 2 we won't be late> --as.sured-ness l-'shur-od-nas, 'shurd-in assured n. pl assured or assureds (1755): INSURED as-sured.ly lo-shúr-ad-le) adv (14c) 1: without a doubt: CERTAINLY 2: in an assured manner: CONFIDENTLY as.sur.er la-'shur-ar\ or as-sur-or \a-'shúr-ar, ə- shůr-kór\n (1607): one that assures: INSURER as-sur-gent \a-'sar-jant\ adi (L assurgent-, assurgens, prp. of assurgere to risc, Ir, ad- + surgere to rise - more at SURGE] (1578): moving up- ward: RISING; esp: ASCENDANT 1b assy abbr assembly Assyr abbr Assyrian As.syr.i.an la-sir-e-ann (150) 1: a native or inhabitant of ancient Assyria 2: the dialect of Akkadian spoken by the Assyrians As- syrian adi As-syr.i-ol-o.gy la-sir-e-'a-la-jēl n (1828): the science or study of the history, language, and antiquities of ancient Assyria and Babylonia – As syr.i.o-log.i.cal\-,sir-e-a-ā-ji-kal\ adj - As.syr.i.ol...gist \-ä- la-jist\n AST abbr Alaska standard time -ast n suffix (MЕ, fr. L-astes, fr. Gk -astēs, fr. verbs in -azein): one con- nected with (ecdysiast) astar-board la-'srär-bərd) adv (ca. 1630): toward or on the starboard side of a ship <put the helm hard-> As-tar.te la- stär-tēl n (L, fr. Gk Astarte] (1599): the Phoenician god- dess of fertility and of sexual love as.ta-tine Vas-ta- tēn\n [Gk astatos unsteady, fr. 0- + statos standing, fr. histanai to cause to stand more at STAND) (1947): a radioactive halogen element discovered by bombarding bismuth with alpha parti- cles and also formed by radioactive decay - see ELEMENT table as.ter \'as-tər\n (1664) 1 (NL, fr. L, aster, fr. Gk aster., astër star, aster - more at STARJ a: any of various chiefly fall-blooming leafy-stemmed compos- ite herbs (Aster and closely related genera) with often showy heads containing disk flowers or both disk and ray flowers b: CHINA ASTER 2 INL, fr. Gk aster, aster): a system of microtubules arranged radially about a centriole at either end of the mitotic or mei- otic spindle -aster n suffix [ME, fr. L. suffix denoting partial re- semblance): one that is inferior or not genuine (criticaster) as.te-ria \a-'stir-c-al n [L, a precious stone, fr. GK, fem. of asterios starty, fr. aster-, uster] (1903): a gem- stone cut to show asterism aster 1a as-te-ri.at.ed -ē, ā-tad) adi (Gk asterios) (1816): ex- hibiting asterism (~ sapphire) 'as.ter.isk l'as-ta-risk, esp in plural also trik\n [ME, astarisc, fr. LL asteriscus, fr. Gk asteriskos, lit., little star, dim. of aster-, astērl (140): the character * used in printing or writing as a reference mark, as an indication of the omission of letters or words, to denote a hypothetical la abut PI kitten, F table lar\ further \a\ ash \\ ace \ä) mop, mar \aú\ out Ichchin lel bet lél easy .gl go Vi\ hit \i\ ice V\ job \n\ sing \o\ go \o\law loil boy \th\thin th the \ü\ loot \u\ foot Wyl vel \zh\ vision, beige lk.", c.ve, see Guide to Pronunciation 84 automated teller machine e avalanche automated teller machine n (1973): ATM au.to.matic l,ó-tə-'ma-tik\ adj [Gk automatos self-acting. fr. Cute + -matos (akin to L ment-, mens mind) — more at MISDj (1748) 1 a: largely or wholly involuntary: esp: REFLEX 5(blinking of the eye- lids) b: acting or done spontaneously or unconsciously C: done uit produced as if by machine: MECHANICAL (the answers were) 2: having a self-acting or self-regulating mechanisman - transnis- sion) 3 of a firearm: firing repeatedly until the trigger is released syn see SPONTANEOUS - au.to.mat.i.cal.ly -ti-k(-)le adv-au- to.ma.tic-i-ty l-mə-'ti-sə-tē, -ma-in Zautomatic n (1897) 1:a machine or apparatus that operates automat- ically: as a: an automatic firearm b: an automatic transmission 2: a semiautomatic firearm 3: AUDIBLE automatic pilot n (1915) 1: AUTOPILOT 1 2:a state or condition in which activity or behavior is regulated automatically in a predeter- mined or instinctive manner (doing his job on automatic pilot) automatic teller n (1971): ATM automatic teller machine n (1977): ATM automatic writing n (1855): writing produced without conscious in- tention as if of telepathic or spiritualistic origin au-to-ma.tion Vo-ta-'mā-shen\n ['automatic] (1912) 1: the tech- nique of making an apparatus, a process, or a system operate automat- ically 2: the state of being operated automatically 3: automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human labor au-tom-a.tism \ó-'tä-mati-zəm\n [F automatisme. fr. automate au- tomaton, fr. L automaton] (1776) 1 a: the quality or state of being automatic b: an automatic action 2: the moving or functioning (as of an organ, tissue, or a body part) without conscious control that oc- curs either independently of external stimuli (as in the beating of the heart) or under the influence of external stimuli (as in pupil dilation) 3: a theory that views the body as a machine and consciousness as a noncontrolling adjunct of the body 4: suspension of the conscious mind to release subconscious images (~—the surrealist trend toward spontaneity and intuition -Elle) - au.tom.a.tist 'tä-mə-tist\ n or adj au-tom-a-tize lo-'tä-mə-,tiz\ vt -tized; -tiz.ing ['automatic] (1910): to make an action) reflexive - au-tom-a-ti-za-tion ló-,tä-mata- zā-shən. -,tī-'zā-\n au-tom-a-ton o-'tä-mə-tən, mətän\ n.pl -atons or -a ta \-mə-tə, -mə-,tä [L, fr. Gk, neut. of automatos] (1611) 1:a mechanism that is relatively self-operating: esp: ROBOT 2: a machine or control mecha- nism designed to follow automatically a predetermined sequence of op- erations or respond to encoded instructions 3: an individual who acts in a mechanical fashion 'au-to.mo-bile l'o-ta-mo-,bēl, o-ta-mo-'bēl, ó-ta-'mo-,bëll adj [F. fr. aut- + mobile] (1876): AUTOMOTIVE -automobile n (1881): a usu, four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation - automobile vi - au.to.mo.bil.ist 1-'bē-list, -be-in au-to.mo.bil.i.ty lo-to-ma-'bi-lə-tē, -mo-ln (1896): the use of auto- mobiles as the major means of transportation au.to.mor.phism \o-tə-'mor-,fi-zəm\n [aut- + isomorphism] (1862): an isomorphism of a set (as a group) with itself au.to-mo-tive Vo-ta-'mo-tiv adj (1852) 1: SELF-PROPELLED 2: of, relating to. or concerned with self-propelled vehicles or machines au.to.nom.ic \o-ta-nä-mik\ adj (1888) 1: acting or occurring invol- untarily reflexes) 2: relating to, affecting, or controlled by the autonomic nervous system or its effects or activity drugs) - au- to.nom.i.cal.ly \-mi-k(2-)lē\ adv autonomic nervous system n (1898): a part of the vertebrate ner- vous system that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and glandular tissues and governs involuntary actions (as secretion and peristalsis) and that consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasym- pathetic nervous system au-ton.o.mist Ó-'tä-na-mist\ n (1819): one who advocates autonomy au-ton-O-mous lo-'tä-na-mas\ adj [Gk autonomos independent, fr. aur- + nomos law more at NIMBLE] (1799) 1: of, relating to, or marked by autonomy 2 a: having the right or power of self-government b: undertaken or carried on without outside control: SELF-CONTAINED Kan school system) 3 a: existing or capable of existing indepen- dently (an~zooid) b: responding, reacting, or developing indepen- dently of the whole (an~ growth) 4: controlled by the autonomic nervous system syn see FREE - au.ton.o.mous.ly ady au.ton.o my l-me\ n. pl-mies (ca. 1623) 1: the quality or state of be- ing self-governing: esp: the right of self-government 2: self-directing freedom and esp. moral independence 3: a self-governing state au.to.pi.lot Vo-to-pi-lət\n (1916) 1: a device for automatically steer- ing ships, aircraft, and spacecraft 2: AUTOMATIC PILOT 2 au-to.poly.ploid ló-to-pä-le-,ploid\ 1 (1928): an individual or strain whose chromosome complement consists of more than two complete copies of the genome of a single ancestral species — autopolyploid adj - au.to.poly-ploi.dy - ploi-dz 11 au top.sy Vo-täp-sē, 'ó-təp-72, pl -sies [Gk autopsia act of seeing with one's own eyes, fr. aut- + opsis sight. appearance — more at OPTIC] (1678) 1: an examination of a body after death to determine the cause of death or the character and extent of changes produced by dis- ease called also necropsy' 2: a critical examination, evaluation, or assessment of someone or something past autopsy vt au-to-ra-dio.gram \ó-to-'rā-de-a-gram\n1 (1931): AUTORADIOGRAPH au-to-ra.dio.graph \o-to-ra-de-a-grafin (ISV] (1903): an image pro- duced on a photographic film or plate by the radiations from a radioac- tive substance in an object which is in close contact with the emulsion - au-to-ra-dio.graph.ic l-ira-de-a-'gra-fik\ adj – au.to-ra-di-og- ra.phy \- rā-de-la-gra-feln au-to.ro.ta.tion l-ro-'ta-shan\ n (1926): the turning of the rotor of an autogiro or a helicopter with the resulting lift caused solely by the aerodynamic forces induced by motion of the rotor along its flight path -au.to.ro.tate -ro-,tāt vi au-to.route Vo-to-, rüt, -raut\n [F, fr. automobile + route] (1951): an expressway esp. in France autos-da-fé pl of AUTO-DA-FÉ au.to.sex.ing Vo-to-, sek-sin\ adj (1936): exhibiting different charac- ters in the two sexes at birth or hatching chickens) auto.some Vo-ta-,som\n (1906): a chromosome other than a sex chromosome — au.to.so.mal Vo-ta-'so-mal\ adj -- au.to.so.mal.ly Twinə-lel adı au-to-stra.da \au-to-'strä-da, ó-to-1 n.pl - stradas or-stra.de l'strä- (dā\ [lt, fr. automobile + strada street, fr. LL strata paved road – more at STREET] (1927): an expressway esp. in Italy auto-sug ges.tion \o-to-sa(g)-'jes-chən, -'jesh-\ 17 (ISV] (1880): an in- luencing of one's own attitudes, behavior, or physical condition by mental processes other than conscious thought: SELF-HYPNOSIS au.to.sug-gest \-sə(g)-'jest vi au.to.te.lic \o-to-'te-lik, 'te-adj (Gk autotelēs, fr. aut- + telos end - more at TELOS] (1900): having a purpose in and not apart from itself au.to.tet.ra.ploid ló-tö-'te-traploid\n (1930): an individual or strain whose chromosome complement consists of four copies of a single ge- nome due to doubling of an ancestral chromosome complement - au- totetraploid adj - au.to.tet.ra.ploi dy \-.plói-dē\ 11 au.tot.o.my \o-'tä-ta-mē\ n [ISV] (1887): reflex separation of a part (as an appendage) from the body: division of the body into two or more pieces - au-tot-o.mous \-mas\ adj - autot.o.mize l-iniz\ vb au to-trans-fu-sion lo-to-tran(t)s-ifvü-zhan\ n (1886): return of au- tologous blood to the patient's own circulatory system au.to-troph Vo-ta-, trof. träf\n [G, fr. autotroph, adj.] (1938): an auto- trophic organism au-to-tro-phic lo-ta-'tro-fik\ adj [prob. fr. G autotroph, fr. Gk autotro- phos supplying one's own food, fr. aut- + trepnein to nourish] (1893) 1: requiring only carbon dioxide or carbonates as a source of carbon and a simple inorganic nitrogen compound for metabolic synthesis of organic molecules (as glucose) (plants) - compare HETERO- TROPHIC 2: not requiring a specified exogenous factor for normal metabolism - au-to-tro-phi.cal.ly l-fi-k(2-)lēl ady - au-totoro- phy ló-'tä-tra-feln Auto-Tune or auto-tune Vo-to-,t(yün vt [Auto-Tune, proprietary signal processor] (2003): to adjust or alter (a recording of a voice) with Auto-Tune software or other audio-editing software esp. to correct sung notes that are out of tune au-to-work.er l'ó-tö-,wor-kər, 'än (1901): a person employed in the automobile manufacturing industry au-tox.i.da.tion \ó-,täk-sa-da-shan\ n (1883): oxidation by direct combination with oxygen (as in air) at ordinary temperatures au-tumn l'o-tam\n [ME autumpne, fr. L autunnus] (140) 1: the sea- son between summer and winter comprising in the northern hemi- sphere usu. the months of September. October, and November or as reckoned astronomically extending from the September equinox to the December solstice - called also fall 2: a period of maturity or incip- ient decline (in the of life) – au-tum.nal \o-'tam-nəl\ adj - au- tum-nal.ly \-na-lē\ ady autumn crocus n (1822): an autumn-blooming colchicum (Colchicum autuminale) au-tun.ite lö-'tanīt, 'ó-tə-in (4utun, town in France] (ca. 1852): a ra- dioactive usu. lemon-yellow calcium phosphate mineral that occurs in tabular crystals and in scales and that is an ore of uranium aux abbr auxiliary verb Tauxilia-ry log-zil-ya-rē, -'zil-rē, -'zi-la-1 adj [L auxiliaris. fr. auxilium help; akin to L augēre to increase - more at EKE] (150) 1a: offering or providing help b: functioning in a subsidiary capacity (an branch of the state university> 2 of a verb: accompanying another verb and typically expressing person, number, mood, or tense 3 a: SUPPLEMENTARY b: constituting a reserve (an power plant) 4: equipped with sails and a supplementary inboard engine (an ~ sloop 2auxiliary n. pl -ries (1567) 1 a: an auxiliary person, group, or device; specif: a member of a foreign force serving a nation at war b:a Ro- man Catholic titular bishop assisting a diocesan bishop and not having the right of succession — called also auxiliary bishop 2: an auxiliary boat or ship 3: an auxiliary verb aux.in Vok-sən\ n [ISV, fr. Gk auxein to increase - more at EKE] (1933) 1:any of various usu, acidic organic substances that promote cell elongation in plant shoots and usu. regulate other growth processes (as root initiation): as a: INDOLEACETIC ACID b: any of various synthetic substances (as 2.4-D) resembling indoleacetic acid in activity and used esp. in research and agriculture 2: PLANT HORMONE - aux.in.ic lok-si-nik\ adj auxo troph Wok-sa-tröf, -träf\ n (1950): an auxotrophic strain or indi- vidual auxo-tro-phic lok-sa-'tro-fik\ adj [Gk auxein to increase + -o- + E -trophic] (1944): requiring a specific growth substance beyond the minimum required for normal metabolism and reproduction by the pa- rental or wild-type strain mutants of bacteria) --aux-ot.ro.phy Tók-sä-tra-feln av abbr 1 avenue 2 average 3 avoirdupois AV abbr 1 ad valorem 2 audiovisual 3 Authorized Version AN abbr audio/video avail \a-'vāl\ vb [ME. AF availler. prob. fr. a- (fr. Lad-) 4. valer, valoir to be of worth. fr. L valère more at WIELD] vi (140): to be of use or ad- vantage: SERVE (our best efforts did not) vt: to produce or re- sult in as a benefit or advantage: GAIN (his efforts ~ed him nothing) avail oneself of also avail of: to make use of: take advantage of (they availed themselves of his services) 2avail n (150): advantage toward attainment of a goal or purpose: USE (effort was of little avail-abil.i.ty 12-, vā-la-"bi-lə-tēl n, pl -ties (1803) 1: the quality or state of being available 2: an available person or thing avail.able la-'vā-la-bəl\ adj (150) 1 archaic: having a beneficial effect 2: VALID - used of a legal plea or charge 3: present or ready for im- mediate use resources) 4: ACCESSIBLE, OBTAINABLE (articles in any drugstore) 5: qualified or willing to do something or to as- sume a responsibility candidates) 6: present in such chemical or physical form as to be usable (as by a plant nitrogen)(water -avail.able.ness n — avail.ably \-ble\ ady av.a-lanche Wa-və- lanch\n [F, fr. F dial. (Franco-Provençal) lavantse, avalantse] (1744) 1: a large mass of snow, ice, earth, rock, or other material in swift motion down a mountainside or over a precipice 2: a sudden great or overwhelming rush or accumulation of something (hit by an ~ of paperwork) 3: a cumulative process in which pho- grant. grappling 545 2grant n (130) (as of land UI (130) 1: the act of granting 2: something granted: esp: a gift of land or money) for a particular purpose 3 a: a transfer of prop- by deed or writing b: the instrument by which such a transfer is dei also: the property so transferred 4: a minor territorial divi- of Maine, New Hampshire, or Vermont orig. granted by the state an individual or institution t.ee gran-'tē\ n (150): one to whom a grant is made nt-in-aid ligrant-n-'ad\ n, pl grants-in-aid ligran(t)s-n-adi 1851) 1: a grant or subsidy for public funds paid by a central to a lo- government in aid of a public undertaking 2:a grant or subsidy a school or individual for an educational or artistic project pant's gazelle Vgran(t)s-\n [James A. Grant †1892 Brit. explorer] 71012): a large tan gazelle (Gazella granti) of eastern Africa from the dan and Ethiopia to Kenya and Uganda with long graceful horns and a white rump bordered with black Tants.man 'gran(t)-smən\ 2 (1966): a specialist in grantsmanship cants.man.ship - ship\n (1961): the art of obtaining grants anul- or granuli- or granulo- comb form (LL granulum]: granule granulocyte) an.u-lar l'gran-yə-lər\ adj (1762) 1: consisting of or appearing to consist of granules: GRAINY 2: finely detailed reports) - gran- u.lari.ty ligran-ya-'ler-a-tē\n aran.u-late Vgran-ya- lät\ vb -lat.ed; -lat-ing vt (1666): to form or crystallize into grains or granules ~vi: to form granulations (an open granulating wound) - gran.u.la.tor \-,lā-tər\n aran.u-la.tion gran-ya-'lā-shən\n (1612) 1: the act or process of cranulating: the condition of being granulated 2: one of the minute red granules of new capillaries formed on the surface of a wound in healing 3: GRANULE 2 granulation tissue n (1873): tissue made up of granulations that tem- porarily replaces lost tissue in a wound oran-ule Vgran-ayül\n [LL granulum, dim. of L granum grain] (1652) 1: a small particle; esp: one of numerous particles forming a larger unit 2: any of the small short-lived brilliant spots on the sun's photo- sphere aran.u.lite Vgran-ya-,līt\n (1849): a granular metamorphic rock con- sisting mainly of feldspar and quartz — gran.ulit.ic ligran-ya-'li-tik\ adi gran.u-lo-cyte Vgran-ya-lo-,sīt\n [ISV] (1906): a polymorphonuclear white blood cell with granule-containing cytoplasm - gran.u.lo-cyt- ic gran-ya-lo-'si-tik\ adj gran.u.loocy.to.poi.e.sis Vgran-ya-lo-si-tə-poi-'e-səs\ n [NL] (1944): the formation of blood granulocytes typically in the bone marrow gran.u-lo-ma gran-ya-'lo-mal n. pl-mas also -ma-ta \-mə-təl (1861): a mass or nodule of chronically inflamed tissue with granulations that is usu. associated with an infective process — gran.u.lo.ma.tous l-ma-təsl adj granuloma in-gui.na-le l-in-gwa-na-lē, -nä-, -'nā-\ n [NL, lit., in- guinal granuloma] (1918): a sexually transmitted disease characterized by ulceration and formation of granulations on the genitalia and in the groin area and caused by a bacterium (Calymmatobacterium granulo- matis syn. Donovania granulomatis) gran.u-lo sa cell gran-yə-'lo-sa-n [NL granulosa, fr. fem. of granu- losus granulose] (1936): one of the estrogen-secreting cells of the epi- thelial lining of a graafian follicle or its follicular precursor gran ulose \'gran-ya-, lõs\ adj (1852): GRANULAR: esp: having the surface roughened with granules gran.u.lo-sis gran-ya-'lo-səs\ n, pl-louses - sēz\ [NL] (1949): any of several diseases of lepidopteran larvae marked by minute granular in- clusions in infected cells and caused by viruses (genus Granulovirus of the family Baculoviridae) gra.num Vgrā-nam\ n, pl gra.na l-nə [NL, fr. L. grain - more at CORN] (1894): one of the lamellar stacks of chlorophyll-containing thylakoids found in plant chloroplasts grape grāp\ n, often attrib [ME, fr. AF grape grape stalk, bunch of grapes, grape, of Gmc origin; akin to OHG krāpfo hook] (140) 1:a smooth-skinned juicy greenish-white to deep red or purple berry eaten dried or fresh as a fruit or fermented to produce wine 2: any of nu- merous woody vines (genus Vitis of the family Vitaceae, the grape fam- ily) that usu. climb by tendrils, produce grapes, and are nearly cosmo- politan in cultivation 3: GRAPESHOT — grape-like -līk\ adj grape fruit grāp-,früt\ n (1814) 1 pl grapefruit or grapefruits: a large citrus fruit with a bitter yellow rind and inner skin and a highly flavored somewhat acid juicy pulp 2: a small roundheaded tree (Cit. rus paradisi) of the rue family that produces grapefruit grape hyacinth n (1673): any of several small bulbous spring-flowering herbs (genus Muscari) of the lily family with racemes of usu. blue flowers grape.shot l'grāp-,shät\ n (1745): an antiperson- nel weapon consisting of a cluster of small iron balls shot from a cannon grape sugar n (1831): DEXTROSE grape vine 'grāp-, vin\ n (ca. 1736) 1: GRAPE 2 2 a: an informal person-to-person means of cir- culating information or gossip (heard it through the b: a secret source of information grapey var of GRAPY 'graph Vgraf\n [short for graphic formula) (1886) 1: the collection of all points whose coordinates satisfy a given relation (as a function) 2:a dia- gram (as a series of one or more points, lines, line segments, curves, or areas) that represents the grape hyacinth variation of a variable in comparison with that of one or more other variables 3: a collection of vertices and edges that join pairs of vertices 3graph vt (1898) 1: to represent by a graph 2: to plot on a graph graph n (prob. fr. -graph] (1933) 1: a written or printed representa- tion of a basic unit of speech (as a phoneme or syllable); esp: GRAPH- EME 1 2:a single occurrence of a letter of an alphabet in any of its various shapes -graph n comb form [L -graphum, fr. Gk -graphon, fr. neut. of -graphos written, fr. graphein to write -- more at CARVE] 1: something written or drawn (monograph) 2 [F -graphe, fr. LL-graphus]: instrument for making or transmitting records or images (chronograph graph-eme l'gra-,fēm\n [-graph + -eme] (1932) 1:a unit (as a letter or digraph) of a writing system 2: the set of units of a writing system (as letters and letter combinations) that represent a phoneme — gra- phe.mic gra-'fê-mik\ adj - gra.phe.mi.cal.ly l-mi-k(a)lē\ adv gra-phe.mics gra-'fē-miks n pl but sing or pl in constr (1951): the study and analysis of a writing system in terms of graphemes graph.ic Vgra-fik\ also graph.i.cal \-fi-kəl\ adj (L graphicus, fr. Gk graphikos, fr. graphein] (1637) 1a: of or relating to the pictorial arts; also: PICTORIAL b: of, relating to, or involving such reproductive methods as those of engraving, etching. lithography, photography, seri- graphy, and woodcut C:of or relating to the art of printing d: relat- ing or according to graphics 2: formed by writing, drawing, or en- graving 3 usu graphic a: marked by clear lifelike or vividly realistic description b: vividly or plainly shown or described (a sex scene> 4 usu graphical: of, relating to, or represented by a graph 5: of or re- lating to the written or printed word or the symbols or devices used in writing or printing to represent sound or convey meaning - graph.i- cal.ly \-fi-k(a)lē\ ady — graph.ic.ness \-fik-nas\n syn GRAPHIC, VIVID, PICTURESQUE mean giving a clear visual impres- sion in words. GRAPHIC stresses the evoking of a clear lifelike picture <a graphic account of combat). VIVID suggests an impressing on the mind of the vigorous aliveness of something (a vivid re-creation of an exciting event). PICTURESQUE suggests the presentation of a striking or effective picture composed of features notable for their distinct- ness and charm (a picturesque account of his travels). 2graphic n (1944) 1 a: a product of graphic art bpl: the graphic me- dia 2 a: a graphic representation (as a picture, map, or graph) used esp. for illustration b: a pictorial image displayed on a computer screen (the program's ~s are impressive) cpl but sing or pl in constr: the art or science of drawing a representation of an object on a two- dimensional surface according to mathematical rules of projection 3 pl but sing or pl in constr: the process whereby a computer displays graphics 4: a printed message superimposed on a television picture -graphic or graphical adj comb form (LL -graphicus, fr. Gk -graphikos, fr. graphikos]: written or transmitted in a (specified) way (stylographic) (telegraphic) graph.i.ca.cy Vgra-fə-kə-sé\ n (graphic + -acy (as in literacy)] (1965): the ability to understand, use, or generate graphic images (as maps and diagrams) graphical user interface n (1981): a computer program designed to allow a computer user to interact easily with the computer typically by making choices from menus or groups of icons graphic arts n pl (1858): the fine and applied arts of representation, decoration, and writing or printing on flat surfaces together with the techniques and crafts associated with them graphic design n (1935): the art or profession of using design ele- ments (as typography and images) to convey information or create an effect; also a product of this art graphic designer n graphic equalizer n (1969): an electronic device for adjusting the fre- quency response of an audio system by means of a number of controls each of which adjusts the response for a band centered on a particular frequency graphic novel n (1978): a fictional story that is presented in comic- strip format and published as a book graphics tablet n (1980): a device by which pictorial information is entered into a computer in a manner similar to drawing graphite \'gra-,fīt\n [G Graphit, fr. Gk graphein to write] (1796) 1:a soft black lustrous form of carbon that conducts electricity and is used in lead pencils and electrolytic anodes, as a lubricant, and as a modera- tor in nuclear reactors 2: a composite material in which carbon fi- bers are the reinforcing material — gra.phit.ic \gra-'fi-tik\ adj graph.i.tize 'gra-fə, tiz, yfit-īzı vt -tized; -tiz.ing (1899): to convert into graphite - graph.i.tiz.able \-, ti-zə-bəl, -fit-iz-\ adj - graph-i- ti.za.tion gra-fə-tə-'zā-shən, fi-in grapho- comb form [F, fr. MF, fr. Gk, fr. graphe, fr. graphein to write]: writing (grapholect) graph-o-lect l'gra-fa-, lekt\n [grapho- + -lect (as in dialect)] (1977): a standard written language gra.phol-o-gist \gra-'fa-lə-jist\ n (1885): a specialist in graphology gra.phol.o.gy l-jēl n [F graphologie, fr. grapho- + -logie -logy] (1882): the study of handwriting esp. for the purpose of character analysis - graph.o-log.i.cal \gra-fa-'lä-ji-kəll adj graph paper n (1927): paper ruled for drawing graphs graph theory n (1947): a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of graphs -graphy n comb form (L -graphia, fr. Gk, fr. graphein] 1: writing or representation in a specified) manner or by a specified) means or of a (specified) object (stenography> <photography) 2: writing on a (specified) subject or in a (specified) field (hagiography> grap.nel 'grap-nºl\n [ME grapenel, fr. AF grapinel, dim. of MF grapin, dim. of OF grape hook, grape stalk, bunch of grapes- more at GRAPE] (14c): a small anchor with usu, four or five flukes used esp. to recover a sunken object or to anchor a small boat — see ANCHOR illustration grap.pa l'grä-pəl n [It, fr. It dial., grape stalk, of Gmc origin; akin to OHG krāpfo hook] (ca. 1893): a dry colorless brandy distilled from fer- mented grape pomace grap-ple l'gra-pal\ n [ME grappel grappling hook, fr. OF *grappelle, dim. of grape hook — more at GRAPE] (1601) 1a: the act or an in- stance of grappling b: a hand-to-hand struggle c:a contest for su- periority or mastery 2: a bucket similar to a clamshell but usu. hav- ing more jaws grapple vb grap-pled; grap.pling \'gra-p(a-)liņ\ vt (1530) 1: to seize with or as if with a grapple 2: to come to grips with: WRESTLE 3: to bind closely ~ vi 1: to make a ship fast with a grappling hook 2: to come to grips 3: to use a grapple - grap.pler l-p(ə-)lər\n grappling n (1582) 1: GRAPNEL 2: GRAPPLING HOOK \uje writing espi-kəl\ ad drawings ləl abut " kitten, F table lər\ further \a\ ash lālace lä\ mop, mar \aú\ out \ch\ chin lel bet lē\ easy \g\go \i\ hit \ī\ ice V\job \n\ sing logo \o\ law \óil boy \th\thin th\ the \ü\ loot \ů\ foot \yyet \zh\ vision, beige \k,",, e, see Guide to Pronunciation 66.19-CV-0008U-ADA Document rou vled 04/26/19 Tage & 019 984 presumptively • previous to OE premig tricky, fr. prætt trick; akin to ON prettr trick] (bef. 12c) 1 a CARTFUL. CLEVER b: PAT, APT 2 a: pleasing by delicacy or grace b: having conventionally accepted elements of beauty C: appearing Or sounding pleasant or nice but lacking strength, force, manliness. purpose. or intensity words that make no sense - Elizabeth B. Browning) 3 a: MISERABLE, TERRIBLE (a~ mess you've gotten us into) behietiy Scot: STOUT 4: moderately large: CONSIDERABLE (a very profit) (cost a penny) 5: easy to enjoy: PLEASANT - usu. used in negative constructions (reality is not so -Caleb Sol- omon) syn see BEAUTIFUL – pret-ti•ly l-təlē\ ady — pret.ty.ish I-të-ish\ adj 2pret.ty \'pri-tē, 'par- also 'prů-; before "near(lv)" often 'pərt or 'prit or 'prút\ adv (1565) 1 a: in some degree: MODERATELY cold weath- er) b: QUITE, MAINLY (the wound was ... bad -Walt Whitman) 2: in a pretty manner: PRETTILY Kpop vocalists who can sing -Gerald Levitch) - pretty much: MAINLY, LARGELY usage Some handbooks say that pretty is overworked and recommend using a more specific word or restricting pretty to informal or collo- quial contexts. Pretty is used to tone down a statement and is in wide use in all forms of English. It is common in informal speech and writ- ing but is neither rare nor wrong in serious discourse (he may. if he be pretty well off or clever, qualify himself as a doctor -G. B. Shaw) (a return to those traditions of American foreign policy which worked pretty well for over a century —H. S. Commager) (the arguments for buying expensive books have to be pretty cogent-Times Lit. Supp.). pretty pri-tē, 'pər- also 'prů-\ n, pl pretties (1736) 1 pl: dainty clothes: esp: LINGERIE 2: a pretty person or thing pretty same as 3 v pret.tied; pretty-ing (1909): to make pretty - usu, used with up (curtains to ~ up the room) pretty boy n (1885): a man who is notably good-looking; also: DANDY forming a particular structure or tissue in the normal course of deve). opment (retina) — pre-sump-tive.ly ady pre-sump.tuous \pri-'zam(p)-cha-wƏs, -chəs, -shəsl adj [ME, fr. AF presumptious, fr. LL praesumptuosus, irteg. fr. praesumptio] (140): overstepping due bounds (as of propriety or courtesy): taking liber- ties—pre.sumpotu.ous.ly ady pre sump-tu.ous.ness n pre-sup.pose l.pré-sa-poz\ vt [ ME, fr. MF presupposer, fr. ML prae. supponere (perf. indic. praesupposui), fr. L prae- + ML supponere to suppose — more at SUPPOSE] (150) 1: to suppose beforehand 2: to require as an antecedent in logic or fact — pre.sup.po.si.tion pre- sə-pə-'zi-shən\n - pre.sup.po.si-tion.al |-zish-nəl, -'zi-sha-nºl\ adj pre-syn.ap.tic pré-sa-'nap-tik\ adj (1937): of, occurring in, or being a neuron by which a nerve impulse is conveyed to a synapse (a membrane) (a ~ neuron) — pre-syn-ap.ti.cal.ly l-ti-k(a)lē\ adv prêt-à-por-ter or pret-a-porter \pret--por-'tā\n [F, ready to wear] (1959): ready-to-wear clothes pre-teen \'prē-'tēn, -,tēn\n (1952): a boy or girl not yet 13 years old preteen adj (1954) 1: relating to or produced for children esp. in the 9 to 12 year-old age group (~ fashions) 2: being younger than 13 pre-teen-ag.er pré-'tē-nä-jər\ n (1965): PRETEEN pre tend\pri-'tend\ vb [ME, fr. AF pretendre, fr. L praetendere to allege as an excuse, lit., to stretch out, fr. prae- pre- + tendere to stretch — more at THIN] vt (150) 1: to give a false appearance of being, possess- ing, or performing (does not to be a psychiatrist) 2 a: to make be- lieve: FEIGN (he ved deafness) b: to claim, represent, or assert falsely wing an emotion he could not really feel) 3 archaic: VEN- TURE, UNDERTAKE vi 1: to feign an action, part, or role esp. in play 2: to put in a claim (cannot to any particular expertise -Clive Barnes) Syn see ASSUME <pretend adj (1911) 1: IMAGINARY, MAKE-BELIEVE (had a pal with whom he talked) 2: not genuine: MOCK (pearls) 3: being a nonfunctional imitation (a train for the children to play in) pre tend.ed \pri-'ten-dəd\ adj (150): professed or avowed but not gen- uine – affection) - pre tend.ed.ly ady pre tend-er \pri-'ten-dər\n (1609): one that pretends: as a: one who lays claim to something: specif: a claimant to a throne who is held to have no just title b: one who makes a false or hypocritical show pre tense or pre-tence pré-, ten(t)s, pri-'\n [ME. prob. modif. of ML pretensio, irreg. fr. L praetendere] (150) 1: a claim made or implied: esp: one not supported by fact 2 a: mere ostentation: PRETEN- TIOUSNESS (confuse dignity with pomposity and ~ -Bennett Cerf) b: a pretentious act or assertion 3: an inadequate or insincere at- tempt to attain a certain condition or quality 4: professed rather than real intention or purpose: PRETEXT (was there under false ~5) 5: MAKE-BELIEVE, FICTION 6: false show: SIMULATION (saw through hism of indifference) pre.ten.sion \pri-'ten(t)-shən\ n (150) 1: an allegation of doubtful value: PRETEXT 2: a claim or an effort to establish a claim 3:a claim or right to attention or honor because of merit 4: an aspiration or intention that may or may not reach fulfillment (has serious literary s> 5: VANITY, PRETENTIOUSNESS Syn see AMBITION — pre-ten- sion less l-las\ adj pre-ten.sion pré-'ten(t)-shən\ vt [pre- + tension] (1937): PRESTRESS pre.ten.tious pri-'ten(t)-shəs\ adj [F prétentieux, fr. prétention preten- sion, fr. ML pretention-, pretentio, fr. L praetendere] (1832) 1: charac- terized by pretension: as a: making usu. unjustified or excessive claims (as of value or standing) (the fraud who assumes a love of culture that is alien to him - Richard Watts) b: expressive of affect- ed, unwarranted, or exaggerated importance, Worth, or stature (lan- guage) (houses) 2: making demands on one's skill, ability, or means: AMBITIOUS (the daring of the Green Mountain Boys in crossing the lake - Amer. Guide Series: Vt.) syn see SHOWY — pre- ten.tious.ly ady - pre-ten.tious.ness n 'pret.er.it or preterite 'pre-ta-rət\ adi [ME preterit, fr. AF, fr. L praet- eritus, fr. pp. of praeterire to go by, pass, fr. praeter beyond, past, by (fr. compar. of prae before) + ire to go — more at FOR, ISSUE] (14c) archaic: BYGONE, FORMER preterit or preterite 1 (140): PAST TENSE pre-term pré-'tərm, 'prē, adj (1928): of, relating to, being, or brought forth by premature birth a infant) (labor) pre-ter-mi-nal prē-tərm-nəl, 'tər-mə-l adj (1947): occurring or be- ing in the period prior to death (cancer) a patient) pre.ter.mis.sion pré-tər-'mi-shən\ n (L praetermission-, praetermis- sio, fr. praetermittere] (1583): the act or an instance of pretermitting ! OMISSION pre.ter.mit l-'mit\ vt -mit-ted; -mit-ting [L praetermittere, fr. praeter by, past + mittere to let go, send] (1513) 1: to leave undone: NE- GLECT 2: to let pass without mention or notice: OMIT 3: to sus- pend indefinitely (the grand jury voted to the case> pre-ter.nat.u-ral pré-tər-'na-cha-rəl. -nach-rəl\ adj [ML praeternatu- ralis, fr. L praeter naturam beyond nature] (1580) 1: existing outside of nature 2: exceeding what is natural or regular: EXTRAORDINARY (wits trained to acuteness by the debates -G. L. Dickinson) 3: inexplicable by ordinary means; esp: PSYCHIC (~ phenomena) pre-ter.nat.u.ral.ly \-'na-cha-ra-lē, 'nach-rə, 'na-chər-lady — pre- ter-nat-u-ral.ness -na-cha-rəl-nəs, -nach-rəl-\n pre-test Vpré-, test\n (1926): a preliminary test: as a: a test of the ef- fectiveness or safety of a product prior to its sale b: a test to evaluate the preparedness of students for further studies — pre test pre- test vt pre-text Wprē,tekst\n [L praetextus, fr. practexere to assign as a pre- text, screen, extend in front, fr. prae- + texere to weave — more at TECHNICAL] (1513): a purpose or motive alleged or an appearance as- sumed in order to cloak the real intention or state of affairs syn see APOLOGY pre-text.ing Vpré-, tek-stin\n (1992): the practice of presenting oneself as someone else in order to obtain private information pretor, pretorian var of PRAETOR, PRAETORIAN pret-ti.fy pri-ta-fi, 'pər-, 'prú- vt -fied; -fy-ing (1850): to make pret- ty - pret.ti.fi.ca-tion pri-ta-fə-'kā-shan, pər-, prů- 12 — pret-ti- fi.er pri-tə- fil-ər, 'pər-, 'prů-in pret-ti.ness Vpri-tē-nəs, 'pər-, 'pru-\ n (1617) 1: the quality or state of being pretty 2: something pretty pret.ty V'pri-tē, 'pər- also 'prů-1 adj pret-ti.er; -est [ME praty. prety, fr. pretozel \'pret-səl\ n [G Brezel, ultim. fr. L brachiatus having branches like arms, fr. brachium arm — more at BRACE] (ca. 1838): a brittle or chewy glazed usu. salted slender bread often shaped like a loose knot prev abbr previous: previously pre-vail \pri-'vāl\ vi [ME, fr. L praevalēre, fr. prae- pre- + valēre to be strong — more at WIELD] (150) 1: to gain ascendancy through strength or superiority: TRIUMPH 2: to be or become effective or ef- fectual 3: to use persuasion successfully (ed on him to sing) 4: to be frequent: PREDOMINATE (the west winds that in the moun- tains) 5: to be or continue in use or fashion: PERSIST (a custom that stills) prev.a.lence Wpre-və-lən(t)s, 'prev-lən(t)\n (1713) 1: the quality or state of being prevalent 2: the degree to which something is preva- lent; esp: the percentage of a population that is affected with a partic- ular disease at a given time prev.a.lent \-lənt\ adj [L praevalent., praevalens very powerful, fr. prp. of praevalēre] (1576) 1 archaic: POWERFUL 2: being in ascendancy: DOMINANT 3: generally or widely accepted, practiced, or favored: WIDESPREAD — prevalent n - prev.a lent.ly ady pre-var-i.cate \pri-ver-a-, kāt, 'va-ra-l vi -cat.ed; -cat.ing [L prae- varicatus, pp. of praevaricari to act in collusion, lit., to straddle, fr. prae- + varicare to straddle, fr. varus bowlegged] (ca. 1631): to deviate from the truth: EQUIVOCATE syn see LIE --pre.var.i.ca.tion - ver- ə-'kā-shan, -'va-ra-\n - pre.var.i.ca.tor \'ver-a-, kā-tər, 'va-ra-n pre.ve.nient pri-'vēn-yant\ adj [L praevenient-, praeveniens, prp. of praevenire] (ca. 1656): ANTECEDENT, ANTICIPATORY — pre.ve.nient- ly adv pre.vent \pri-'vent\ vb [ME, to anticipate, fr. L praeventus, pp. of prae- venire to come before, anticipate, forestall, fr. prae- + venire to come — more at COME] vt (150) 1 archaic a: to be in readiness for (as an oc- casion) b: to meet or satisfy in advance C: to act ahead of d: to go or arrive before 2: to deprive of power or hope of acting or suc- ceeding 3: to keep from happening or existing (steps to war> 4: to hold or keep back: HINDER, STOP — often used with from vi: to interpose an obstacle — pre.vent abil.i.ty liven-ta-'bi-la-tē\n- pre.vent.able also pre.vent.ible l-'ven-tə-ball adj - pre.vent.er 11 syn PREVENT, ANTICIPATE, FORESTALL mean to deal with before- hand. PREVENT implies taking advance measures against something possible or probable (measures taken to prevent leaks). ANTICIPATE may imply merely getting ahead of another by being a precursor or forerunner or it may imply checking another's intention by acting first anticipated the question by making a statement). FORESTALL implies a getting ahead so as to stop or interrupt something in its course (hoped to forestall the sale). pre.ven-ta-tive l-'ven-ta-tiv\ adj or n (ca. 1666): PREVENTIVE pre.ven.tion \pri-'ven(t)-shən\ n (1582): the act of preventing or hin- dering pre.ven.tive -'ven-tivl n (ca. 1639): something that prevents; esp: something used to prevent disease -preventive adj (ca. 1626): devoted to or concerned with prevention: PRECAUTIONARY steps against soil erosion>: as a: designed or serving to prevent the occurrence of disease (medical care) b: un- dertaken to forestall anticipated hostile action a coup> - pre- ven.tive.ly ady - pre.ven.tive.ness n pre.ver-bal \@prē-'vər-bəl\ adj (1921) 1: occurring before the verb 2: having not yet acquired the faculty of speech a child> preview Vprē, vyü\v (1607) 1: to see beforehand: specif: to view or to show in advance of public presentation 2: to give a preliminary survey of — pre.view.er l-, vyü-ər\n preview n (1882) 1: an advance statement, sample, or survey 2: an advance showing or performance (as of a motion picture or play) 3 also pre.vue - Vyül: a showing of clips from a motion picture adver- tised for appearance in the near future called also trailer pre.vi.ous \'prē-vē-as\ adj [L praevius leading the way, fr. prae- pre-+ via way — more at WAY] (1625) 1: going before in time or order: PRIOR 2: acting too soon: PREMATURE (somewhat ~ in his con- clusion) syn see PRECEDING — pre.vi.ous.ly adv — pre-vi.ous- ness n previous question n (ca. 1715): a parliamentary motion to put the pending question to an immediate vote without further debate or amendment that if defeated has the effect of permitting resumption of debate previous to prep (1698): PRIOR TO, BEFORE adi Case 6:18-cv-00080-ADA Document 76-8 Filed 04/26799sepage loropguction 1057 re.pos.sess \,rē-pa-izes also 'ses vt (150) 1 a: to regain possession conscious b: an item so excluded - re.pres.sion-ist \-sh(ə-)nist of b: to take possession of something bought from a buyer in de fault of the payment of installments due 2: to restore nasSESSION re.pres.sor Tri-pre-sər\n [NL] (1611): one that represses: esp: a pro- re.pos.ses.sion 'ze-shən also 'se- n repossess 01 70 tein that is determined by a regulatory gene, binds to a genetic opera- sar also 'se-in tor, and inhibits the initiation of transcription of messenger RNA Pre-pous sé \ra-pü-'sā, -'pü-, adj [F, lit., pushed back.) 1858) 1 re-priev.al \ri-'prē-vəl\ n (ca. 1586) archaic: REPRIEVE: shaped or ornamented with patterns in relief made by hammering or 're.prieve \ri-'prēv\ vt re.prieved; re-priev.ing [prob. blend of obs. pressing on the reverse side — used esp. of metal 2: formed in relief repreve to reprove (fr. ME) and obs. repry to remand, postpone, fr. AF 2repoussén (1858) 1: repoussé work 2: repoussé decoration repri-, past stem of reprendre to take back] (1596) 1: to delay the pun- re-pow.er Grē-'pau(-a)r\ vt (1954): to provide again or anew with ishment of (as a condemned prisoner) 2: to give relief or deliverance power: esp: to provide (as a boat) with a new engine to for a time repp var of REP Preprieven (1592) 1 a: the act of reprieving the state of being re- repped past and past part of SREP prieved b: a formal temporary suspension of the execution of a sen- repping pres part of SREP tence esp. of death 2: an order or warrant for a reprieve 3:a tem- rep.re.hendre-pri-'hend\ vt [ME, fr. L reprehendere, lit., to hold back, porary respite (as from pain or trouble) fr. re- + prehendere to grasp more at GET] (14c): to voice disapprov- repori.mand re-pra-,mand\n [F réprimande, fr. L reprimenda, fem. of al of: CENSURE syn see CRITICIZE reprimendus. gerundive of reprimere to check — more at REPRESS] rep.re.hen.si.ble lire-pri-'hen(t)-sa-ball adj (140): worthy of or de- (1636): a severe or formal reproof serving reprehension: CULPABLE — rep.rechen.Si.bill.ty hen(t)- 2reprimand vr (1681): to reprove sharply or censure formally usu. from s'bi-la-tēl n rep.re.hen.si.ble.ness \-'hen(t)-sə-bal-nas n a position of authority syn see REPROVE rep-re.hen-si-bly l-ble\ ady re-print Gre-print ví (1551): to print again: make a reprint of rep-re hen-sion -hen(t)-shen\n [ME reprehensioun, fr. AF or L: AF re.print \'re-print, Grē."\n (1611): a reproduction of printed matter: reprehension, fr. L reprehension-, reprehensio, fr. reprehendere] (140) as a: a subsequent printing of a book already published that pre-: the act of reprehending: CENSURE serves the identical text of the previous printing b: OFFPRINT C rep-re-hen.sive \-'hen(t)-siv\ adj (1589): serving to reprehend: con-: matter (as an article) that has appeared in print before veying reprehension or reproof re.print.er (rē- prin-tər\n (1689): one that publishes a reprint rep-re.sent re-pri-'zent\ vb [ME, fr. AF representer. fr. L repraesen- re.pri.sal \ri-pri-zəl\ n [ME reprisail, fr. AF reprisaile, fr. ML represa- tare, fr. re- + praesentare to present] vt (140) 1: to bring clearly before lia, fr. Olt rappresaglia, ultim. fr. ripreso, pp. of riprendere to take back, the mind: PRESENT (a book which the character of early Ameri- fr. ri-re- (fr. L re-) + prendere to take, fr. L prehendere - more at GET] ca) 2: to serve as a sign or symbol of the flag ~s our country) 3 (150) 1 a: the act or practice in international law of resorting to force: to portray or exhibit in art: DEPICT 4: to serve as the counterpart short of war in retaliation for damage or loss suffered b: an instance or image of: TYPIFY <a movie hero who s the ideals of the culture) of such action 2 obs: PRIZE 3: the regaining of something (as by re- 5 a: to produce on the stage b: to act the part or role of 6 a (1): to capture) 4: something (as a sum of money) given or paid in restitu- take the place of in some respect (2): to act in the place of or for usu. tion - usu. used in pl. 5: a retaliatory act by legal right (3): to manage the legal and business affairs of athletes *re.prise \ri-'prēz. 1 is also 'priz\ n [ME, fr. AF, seizure, repossession, ved by top lawyers and agents) b: to serve esp. in a legislative body expense, fr. fem. pp. of reprendre to take back, fr. re- + prendre to take, by delegated authority usu, resulting from election 7: to describe as fr. L prehendere] (150) 1:a deduction or charge made yearly out of a having a specified character or quality (s himself as a friend) 8 a manor or estate — usu, used in pl. 2: a recurrence, renewal, or re-: to give one's impression and judgment of state in a manner intended sumption of an action 3 [F, fr. MF] a: a musical repetition: (1) to affect action or judgment b: to point out in protest or remon-: the repetition of the exposition preceding the development (2): RE- strance 9: to serve as a specimen, example, or instance of 10 a: to CAPITULATION 3 b: a repeated performance: REPETITION form an image or representation of in the mind b (1): to apprehend Pre-prise \ri-prīz, 3 is 'prēz\ vt re-prised; re-pris.ing [ME, fr. MF re- (an object) by means of an idea (2): to recall in memory 11: to cor- pris, pp. of reprendre] (150) 1 archaic: TAKE BACK; esp: to recover by respond to in essence: CONSTITUTE ~ vi 1: to make representations force 2 archaic: COMPENSATE 3 a: to repeat the performance of against something: PROTEST 2 slang: to perform a task or duty admi- b: to repeat the principal points or stages of: RECAPITULATE rably: serve as an outstanding example — repore.sentable l-'zen-ta- re.pris.ti-nate \rē-pris-ta- nāt\ vi-nat.ed; -nat.ing (re- + pristine + bəl\ adj - rep.re.sent.ern 4-ate] (1659): to restore to an original state or condition - re.pris.ti- re-pre.sent lirë-pri-'zent\ vt (1564): to present again or anew - re- na.tion \G)ré-pris-ta-'nā-shən\n pre-sen-ta-tion lyrē- prē-izen-'tā-shən, -pre-zn-, -prē-zºn-in re.pro \'re-Q pro\ n, pl repros [short for reproduction] (1946) 1:a rep-re.sen.ta.tion re-pri-zen-'tā-shən, -zən-\n (150) 1: one that clear sharp proof made esp. from a letterpress printing surface to serve represents: as a: an artistic likeness or image b (1): a statement or as photographic copy for a printing plate 2: REPRODUCTION 2 account made to influence opinion or action (2): an incidental or col- 're.proach \ri-proch\ 71 [ME reproche, fr. AF, fr. reprocher to reproach, lateral statement of fact on the faith of which a contract is entered into fr. VL *repropiare to bring close, show, fr. L re- + prope near — more at C: a dramatic production or performance (1): a usu, formal state- APPROACH] (140) 1: an expression of rebuke or disapproval 2: the ment made against something or to effect a change (2): a usu. formal act or action of reproaching or disapproving (was beyond > 3 a: a protest 2: the act or action of representing: the state of being repre- cause or occasion of blame, discredit, or disgrace b: DISCREDIT, DIS- sented: as a: REPRESENTATIONALISM 2 b (1): the action or fact of GRACE 4 obs: one subjected to censure or scorn — re.proach.ful one person standing for another so as to have the rights and obligations \-fal\ adj - re.proach.ful.ly \-fə-lē\ ady - re.proach-ful.ness n of the person represented (2): the substitution of an individual or Preproach vt (140) 1: to express disappointment in or displeasure with class in place of a person (as a child for a deceased parent) C: the ac- (a person) for conduct that is blameworthy or in need of amendment tion of representing or the fact of being represented esp. in a legislative 2: to make (something) a matter of reproach 3: to bring into dis- body 3: the body of persons representing a constituency — rep-re- credit syn see REPROVE - re.proach.able \-'pro-chə-bəl\ adj - re- sen-ta.tion.al \-shnəl, -sha-nºi\ adj - rep-re.sen.ta-tion.al.ly ady proach.er n — re.proach.ing.ly -pro-chin-lē\ ady rep-re.sen.ta-tion.al.ism \-shna-li-zəm, -sha-nºl-,-\n (1842) 1: the rep-ro-bance Vre-pre-ban(t)\ n (1604) archaic: REPROBATION doctrine that the immediate object of knowledge is an idea in the mind rep.ro.bate \'re-prə,bāti vt -bat-ed; -bat-ing [ME, fr. LL reprobatus, distinct from the external object which is the occasion of perception 2 pp. of reprobare - more at REPROVE] (150) 1: to condemn strongly: the theory or practice of realistic representation in art rep.re.sen- as unworthy, unacceptable, or evil (reprobating the laxity of the age) ta-tion.al.ist l-list, -ist\n 2: to foreordain to damnation 3: to refuse to accept: REJECT syn 'rep.re.sen-ta-tive lire-pri-zen-ta-tiv adj (140) 1: serving to repre- see CRITICIZE — rep.ro.ba-tive Vre-pra-ba-tiv\ adj - rep.ro.ba-to- sent 2 a: standing or acting for another esp. through delegated au- ry l-bə-tor-ē\ adj thority b: of, based on, or constituting a government in which the 2reprobate adj (150) 1 archaic: rejected as worthless or not standing a many are represented by persons chosen from among them usu, by test: CONDEMNED 2 a: foreordained to damnation b: morally cor- election 3: serving as a typical or characteristic example (a mov- rupt: DEPRAVED 3: expressing or involving reprobation 4: of, re- iegoer) 4:of or relating to representation or representationalism lating to, or characteristic of a reprobate rep.re.sen-ta-tively ady — rep.re.sen-ta-tive.ness n- rep.re- reprobate n (1545): a reprobate person sen.ta.tiv.ity lizen-ta-'ti-va-tē n1 rep.ro.ba-tion re-pra-'bā-shən\n (140): the act of reprobating: the representativen (1635) 1: one that represents another or others: as state of being reprobated a (1): one that represents a constituency as a member of a legislative re.pro-cess Grē- präses, -pro-, -SƏS VI (1921): to subject to a spe- body (2): a member of the house of representatives of the U.S. Con- cial process or treatment in preparation for reuse: esp: to extract ura- gress or a state legislature b: one that represents another as agent, nium and plutonium from the spent fuel rods of a nuclear reactor) for deputy, substitute, or delegate usu. being invested with the authority of use again as fuel the principal C: one that represents a business organization d: one re.pro duce lrē-pra-'düs, -'dyüsl vt (ca. 1611): to produce agair: as a that represents another as successor or heir 2: a typical example of a: to produce (new individuals of the same kind) by a sexual or asexual group, class, or quality: SPECIMEN process b: to cause to exist again or anew water from steam) C re-press \ri-pres vb [ME, fr. AF represser, fr. L repressus, pp. of re-: to imitate closely (sound-effects can the sound of thunder) d: to primere to check, fr. re- + premere to press more at PRESS] vr (140) present again e: to make a representation (as an image or copy) of 1 a: to check by or as if by pressure: CURB (injustice was ~ed) b ~ a face on canvas) f: to revive mentally: RECALL g: to translate: to put down by force: SUBDUE (~ a disturbance) 2 a: to hold in (a recording) into sound ~ vi 1: to undergo reproduction 2: to by self-control (ved a laugh) b: to prevent the natural or normal produce offspring re-pro-duc-er n-re.pro-duc-ibil.i.ty \-,dü-sa- expression, activity, or development of (ved her anger) 3: to ex- bi-lə-tē. - dyü- n - re.pro.duc.ible l-'dü-sə-bəl, - dyü-\ adj or n - clude from consciousnessed the memory of abuse) 4: to inacti- re-pro-duc-ibly l-blē\ adv vate (a gene or formation of a gene product) by allosteric combination re.pro-duc-tion rē-pra-'dək-shan\ n (1659) 1: the act or process of at a DNA binding site vi: to take repressive action - re.press- reproducing: specif: the process by which plants and animals give rise ibil.i.ty l-pre-sa-bi-lə-tēl n - re.press.ible - pre-sa-bəl\ adj - re- to offspring and which fundamentally consists of the segregation of a pres.sive l-'pre-siv\ adj – re.pres.sive.ly ady — re.pres.sive- portion of the parental body by a sexual or an asexual process and its ness n subsequent growth and differentiation into a new individual 2: some- re-press Gré-'pres vt (140): to press again ~ a record) thing reproduced: COPY 3: young seedling trees in a forest re.pressed \ri-prest\ adj (1665) 1: subjected to or marked by repres- sion 2: characterized by restraint re-pres.sion \ri-pre-shən\n (1533) 1a: the action or process of re lə abut l'\ kitten, F table lər\ further lal ash lā\ ace lä\ mop, mar pressing: the state of being repressed (~ of unpopular opinions) b \aủ\ out \ch\ chin lel bet \ēl easy gl go \i\ hit \i\ice Vi job: an instance of repressing (racial ~s) 2 a: a mental process by which distressing thoughts, memories, or impulses that may give rise to \n\ sing lol go \o\ law loil boy \th\thin \th the \ül loot \ú\ foot anxiety are excluded from consciousness and left to operate in the un \y\ yet \zh\ vision, beige \k."., le, see Guide to Pronunciation