USA v. Perez

Exhibit B Kingsbridge Heights etc. Community Health Profiles

Southern District of New York, nysd-1:2017-cr-00251-473134

Current View

Full Text

1 United States v. Kevin Mieses 17 Cr. 251 (PGG) EXHIBIT B Kingsbridge Heights, etc. Community Health Profiles 1 Kingsbridge Heights BRONX COMMUNITY DISTRICT 7 and Bedford Including Bedford Park, Fordham, Kingsbridge Heights, Norwood and University Heights Health is closely tied to our daily environment. Understanding how our neighborhood affects our physical and mental health is the first step toward building a healthier and more equitable New York City. COMMUNITY HEALTH PROFILES 2018 COMMUNITY HEALTH PROFILES 2018: KINGSBRIDGE HEIGHTS AND BEDFORD 1 1W G HILL UN RD E 211 S T Who We Are V NA DE W KINGSBR W 225 UL ST GO GR D New York City ER RIV New York City EM RL E FORDH HA AV AM RD H FA ALL O W E OM ME F 18 TER S 3 JER T NYC population by race PAGE 2 New York City NYC population by race PAGE 2 New York City Kingsbridge PAGE 2 and PAGE Heights Black Bedford Population 2 by race Black POPULATION100.0 100.0 Latino 87.5 BY RACE AND100.0 NYC population by race 87.5 Population Latino by race Black Black 75.0 75.0 67% ETHNICITY^ 62.5 87.5 PAGE 2 100.0 62.5 PAGE 2 Latino Other Latino 50.0 75.0 87.5 50.0 Other 32% New York City 37.5 29% 75.0 Population 67% Other18%by race 62.5 37.5 Black Asian 22% Black Other 25.0 50.0 100.0 15% 62.5 25.0 Asian 29% 32% 2% 50.0 100.0 7% 6% 12.5 37.5 87.5 22% 12.5 Latino 87.5 1% Latino White 0.0 25.0 75.0 15% 37.5 0.0 75.0 Asian White 67% Asian 12.5 62.5 Asian Black Latino White Other 2% 25.0 Other 62.5 Asian 18% Black Latino White Other Other 7% 50.0 0.0 37.5 22% 29% 32% 12.5 50.0 White 6% 1% White 25.0 Asian15%Black Latino White Other 0.0 Population 37.5 Asian by Latino age Asian NYC population by race 12.5 2% 25.0 18% Asian Black White Other NYC population by age 8,537,673 148,163 12.5 7% 6% 1% TOTAL 0.0 White White Asian Black Latino White Other 0.0 PAGE 2 PAGE 2 PAGE 6 POPULATION NYC population by age 45.0 Population by age Asian Black Latino White Other 45.0 NYC population Black byPopulation age by race Population by age Black Elementary School Abseentee 31% 45.0 32% 100.0 Latino 45.0 26% Latino POPULATION 45.0 87.5 25% 45.0 23% 67% 22.5 90 21% 32% 75.0 32% Other 31% Other 31% BY AGE29% 32% 22.5 62.5 50.0 25% 14% 25% 26%26%11% 9% 15% 22% 22.5 21%21%9% Asian 37.5 22.5 Asian 23% 23% 22.5 22.5 2% 25.0 14% 18% 9% White 7% 14% 6% 0.0 1% 11% 9% Asian Black Latino White0.0 Other 9% 12.5 11% White 60 9% 0.0 Asian Black Latino White Other 0-17 18-24 25-44 45-64 65+ 0.0 0-17 18-24 25-44 45-64 65+ 0.0 0-17 18-24 25-44 45-64 65+ 0-17 18-24 25-44 45-64 65+ NYC population by age 0.0 Population by age 0.0 0-17 18-24 25-44 45-64 65+ 0-17 18-24 25-44 45-64 65+ BornBorn outside 30 BornBorn outsideUS outside US 45.0 English proficiency English outsideUS proficiency US English English proficien proficiency BORN OUTSIDE 32% Born outside US 26% 31% EnglishBorn outside US proficiency English proficien 25% 23% 21%THE US 22.5 0 14% 9% 37% 11% 9% 44% 0.0 Highest Level of Education Achiev 0-17 18-24 25-44 45-64 65+ 0-17 18-24 25-44 45-64 65+ Born outside US English proficiencyBorn outside US English proficiency HAVE LIMITED 20 PAGE 8 Non-fatal Assault Hospitalizations ENGLISH PROFICIENCY 23% PAGE 8 36% 15 Non-fatal Assault Hospitalizations 10 PAGE 8 Non-fatal Assault Hospitalizations 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 ^White, Black, Asian and Other exclude Latino ethnicity. Latino is Hispanic or Latino of any race. 5 Note: Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding. 2000 Sources: Population, Race and Ethnicity and Age: U.S. CensusPAGE Bureau8Population Non-fatal Assault Hospitalizations Outside the U.S. and English Proficiency: U.S. CensusIncarceration 0 40 80 120 160 200 Estimates, 2016; Born Bureau, American Community Survey, 2012-2016 1500 Edit in Ind 2 1000 COMMUNITY HEALTH PROFILES 2018: KINGSBRIDGE HEIGHTS AND BEDFORD 0 40 80 120 160 500 0 40 80 120 160 0 40 80 120 160 200 1 Note from Oxiris Barbot, Commissioner, New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene We are pleased to present the 2018 Community Health Profiles, a look into the health of New York City's (NYC) 59 diverse community districts. The health of NYC has never been better. Our city's life expectancy is 81.2 years, 2.5 years higher than the national average. However, not all residents have the same opportunities to lead a healthy life. A ZIP code should not determine a person's health, but that's the reality in so many cities, including our own. The Community Health Profiles allow us to see how much health can vary by neighborhood. Policies and practices based on a history of racism and discrimination (often referred to as structural racism) have created neighborhoods with high rates of poverty and limited access to resources that promote health. The practice of removing funding or refusing to provide funding to communities of color has caused poor health outcomes to cluster in these communities. The Community Health Profiles also show how important community resources, and funding to create and sustain these resources, are to health outcomes. For example, supermarkets provide more access to fresh foods than bodegas. However, in some neighborhoods with obesity rates higher than the citywide average, just 5% of food establishments are supermarkets, making it difficult for residents to make healthy choices. Addressing these inequities may seem like a daunting task, but by working together, we can dismantle the unjust policies and practices that contribute to poor health in our communities. Through Take Care New York 2020 (TCNY 2020), and other New York City Health Department programs, we work with community partners to give every resident the same opportunity for good health. We are making progress, but there is more work to do. Reducing health inequities requires policymakers, community groups, health professionals, researchers and residents to work together for change at every level. We look forward to working with you to improve the health of our city. Sincerely, Oxiris Barbot, MD Take Care New York 2020 (TCNY 2020) is the City's blueprint for giving everyone the chance to live a healthier life. For more information, visit and search for TCNY. COMMUNITY HEALTH PROFILES 2018: KINGSBRIDGE HEIGHTS AND BEDFORD 3 1 Table of Contents Who We Are Healthy Living PAGE 2 PAGE 13 Understanding Health Health Care Inequities in New York City PAGE 14-15 PAGE 5 Social and Economic Health Outcomes Conditions PAGE 16-18 PAGE 6-8 Housing and Notes Neighborhood Conditions PAGE 19 PAGE 9-10 Map and Contact Maternal and Child Health PAGE 11-12 Information BACK COVER NAVIGATING THIS DOCUMENT This profile covers all of Bronx's Community District 7, which includes Bedford Park, Fordham, Kingsbridge Heights, Norwood and University Heights. This is one of 59 community districts in NYC. The community district with the most favorable outcome in NYC for each measure is presented throughout the report. Sometimes this is the highest rate (e.g., physical activity) and sometimes this is the lowest rate (e.g., infant mortality). Some figures include an arrow to help readers understand the direction of the healthier outcome. This profile uses the following color coding system: KINGSBRIDGE LOWEST/HIGHEST HEIGHTS AND BRONX NEW YORK CITY COMMUNITY BEDFORD DISTRICT 4 COMMUNITY HEALTH PROFILES 2018: KINGSBRIDGE HEIGHTS AND BEDFORD 1 Understanding Health Inequities in New York City The ability to live a long and healthy life is not equally available to all New Yorkers. A baby born to a family that lives in the Upper East Side will live 11 years longer than a baby born to a family in Brownsville. This inequity is unacceptable. Resources and opportunities are at the root of good health. These include secure jobs with benefits, well-maintained and affordable housing, safe neighborhoods with clean parks, accessible transportation, healthy and affordable food, and quality education and health care.1 In NYC, access to these resources and opportunities are not equitably distributed. Neighborhoods with residents of color often have fewer resources. Since the 1600s—when NYC was established by colonization—racist policies and practices have shaped where New Yorkers live and go to school, what jobs they have and what their neighborhoods look like. Over time, these policies and practices have built on each other to create deep inequity. For example, in the 1930s the federal government developed a policy known as redlining. As part of this policy, neighborhoods were rated based on the race, ethnicity and national origin of their residents. Neighborhoods that were home to people of color, like Central Harlem and Brownsville, were outlined in red on a map. They were labeled as "hazardous" and no home loans or other investments were approved there. The wealthiest and Whitest neighborhoods in NYC received, and continue to receive, more investment and opportunities for health.2 The denial of resources and opportunities that support good health contributes to the differences in life expectancy we see today. Experiencing racism is also a health burden, creating chronic stress that contributes to major causes of death, like diabetes and heart disease.3 To better understand the successes and challenges in each of NYC's 59 neighborhoods, the Community Health Profiles present data on a range of measures. These data should be interpreted with an understanding that good health is not only determined by personal choices. Many other factors shape differences in health outcomes, including past and current discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, gender, sexual orientation and other identities. We hope the Community Health Profiles support your efforts in making NYC more equitable for all. For more information on the New York City Health Department programs and services that are closing the gap in health outcomes, visit 1 Marmot M, Friel S, Bell R, et al. Closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health. The Lancet. 2008; 372(9650): 1661–1669. 2 Undesign the Redline. Accessed March 13, 2018. 3 Krieger N. Embodying inequality: A Review of Concepts, Measures, and Methods for Studying Health Consequences of Discrimination. International Journal of Health Services. 1999; 29(2): 295-352. COMMUNITY HEALTH PROFILES 2018: KINGSBRIDGE HEIGHTS AND BEDFORD 5 1 Social and Economic Conditions Education Higher education levels are associated with better health outcomes. Missing too many days of school can cause students to fall behind and increases their risk of dropping out. Kingsbridge Heights and Bedford's elementary school absenteeism rate is higher than the rate for NYC overall. Seven out of 10 high school students in Kingsbridge Heights and Bedford PAGE 6 graduate in four years, lower than the citywide rate. PAGE 6 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ABSENTEEISM ON-TIME HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION Elementary Elementary School School Abseentee Abseentee On time (percent of public school students in grades K through 5 missing 19 or On time high high school (percent school graduation of public graduation school students graduating in four years) more school days) 90 90 100 100 96% 75% 75 75 70% 68% 60 60 PAGE PAGE PAGE666 50 50 Black Black Black 29% Elementary Elementary ElementarySchool School SchoolAbseentee Abseentee Abseentee On On Ontime time timehigh high highschool school schoolgraduation graduation graduation 30 30 28% Latino Latino Latino 20% 25 25 Other Other Other 90 90 90 100 100 100 5% 0 0 Asian Asian Asian 0 0 Kingsbridge Bronx NYC Lowest: Kingsbridge Bronx 75 75 NYC75 Highest: 1% 1% 1% Heights and White White White 60 60 Bayside and60 Little Neck Heights and Financial District Other Highest Bedford Bedford Highest Other Other Level ofLevel of Education Education Achieved Achieved Source: NYC Department of Education, 2016-2017 Note: NYC and borough On-time High 50 50 50 Graduation data may differ from rates